Keystone species are those that comedy aunique and crucial role in ecosystem run. They have a disproportionately largeeffect on their environment relative to their abundance. Because of their key character in maintainingbiodiversity efforts to manage and protect keystonespecies can help stabilize the entire biologicalcommunity. The term keystone genus was firstcoined by Doctor Robert Paine in 1969. His research found that the purple seastar avoided mussels from over- populating rocky intertidal ecosystemsin the Pacific Northwest. There was still five generally recognizedcategories of keystone species — keystone piranhas, modifiers, prey, mutualists, and legions. If a keystone piranha like the graywolf is removed from the ecosystem, people of their prey such as elkexponentially increase. This can cause a cascading effect onother embeds and animals within the ecosystem. By preying on mussels that wouldotherwise dominate the ecosystem, the violet sea sun is a keystone predatorthat opening hours habitat for a diversity of other species. Another keystone piranha is theAmerican alligator found in the southeastern U.S.Alligators prey on fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals The alligator is also an example of akeystone modifier, or ecosystem architect, which leads to or hugely modifiesits habitat. Alligators mine dips in the groundthat replenish with deeper water stipulating sanctuary for fish and other aquaticspecies during the course of its baked season. Another keystone modifier is the black-tailed prairie dog, which remains grassland in the GreatPlains properly maintained with a variety of floras that advantage othergrazing genus such as cattle and pronghorn. Prairie dog burrows aerate pact soiland allow water to infiltrate deeper into the ground. Many other species use the burrows forshelter. Prairie dogs are also an important foodsource for coyotes, foxes, hawks, and the endangered black-footed ferret. That draws us to the next list, keystone target, which can causesignificant waverings in predator densities.Pacific salmon are keystone prey playinga vital role in Pacific Northwest ecosystems and immediately interesting eighty-ninebirds, forty-one mammals, five reptiles, and two amphibians throughecosystem nutrient lading. The black-bellied salamander is anotherkeystone prey species that adds a large amount of protein biomass forpredators in certain stream ecosystems in the southeastern U.S. Keystone mutualists are thoseorganisms that participate in mutually beneficial interactions, withhummingbirds the most notable examples. Otherwise known as link genus, countless hummingbirds pollinate highlyspecialized seeds changed o pollination only by these chicks. The last list is the keystone legion, with the quaking aspen being one example. Aspens create an open canopy thatharbors diversity on the forest floor, enticing countless bugs not foundelsewhere within the ecosystem.In add-on, the red-naped sapsucker, a keystone modifier trenches its nests in aspen trees. The vacated nests accommodate protect formany other bird species. The greater biodiversity that keystonespecies help maintain affords protection of water resources and soil, nutrient storage and recycling, contamination dominate, and better recoveryfrom unpredictable environmental contests ..