UW Environment Virtual Visit: Ecology and Conservation

hi everyone welcome to the college ofthe environments virtual visit day event as a reminderthis webinar is being recorded for future usemy name is barbara owens and i work in the dean’soffice in the college of the environment as the pre-majoradvisor so that means i help introduce students to all of our majors and helpthem find the one that’s right for them i use she and her pronouns i hope thatyou enjoyed the video you just viewed even though you didn’t hear themusic there’s kind of some cool music but we’ll get the music fixed on thenext video so no worries um so that that video shows a sneak peekinto our undergraduate programs and we’re really excitedto welcome you today to the fourth of five webinars that we’ve been hostingthis summer exploring our majors in more depth andtoday’s session is focused on ecology and conservationand we have some pretty fun videos for you to watch you’ll hear from our deanyou’ll watch many lessons from two of our faculty and one of our undergraduatestudents who is involved in research and then you will have time toask the three of them questions live and then that will befollowed by additional question and answertime with current students and academic advisorsincluding myself as well and we should be wrapping up the whole day by about 130 p.m so let’s go ahead and get started hello i’m lisa gromlick i’m dean of thecollege of the environment at the university of washington welcometo the virtual visit days so i’m a proud husky i’m an alumnii grew up in the midwest and went to undergraduatecolleges in the midwest but i came to uw for graduate schooland there were lots of choices out there but uw stood outway back when as a place where as a studenti quickly learned that i came first and that i had the abilityto define my passion and to pursue it with the best faculty on the planet i’mactually not kidding about the faculty part we are the largest college of itskind in the nation and our faculty are incredible and i’lltell you a secret about them they’re actually also amazingly kind andthey love to interact with undergraduatesand you’re going to get a chance to meet a couple of them very soonso i’m the dean i’m in charge of all the learning the research and the publiceducation and i do this because i am passionateabout the science both for the joy simply of discoveringmore and more about how the planet works butalso by bringing our best scientific tools to address ourmost challenging problems if it’s climate change or conservation or how dowe become safe from hazards like earthquakes ortsunamis or how will we feed the world’s growingpopulation that is the kind of work we do hereso thank you for spending time with us i know you’reprospective students you’re coming out of high school maybe a gap yearyou’re coming from another college we also have your families with usthank you so much for your interest in our collegethese virtual visit days are meant to give you a tasteof the college of the environment you’ll get a chance to meet faculty you’ll geta chance to virtually visit labs and classrooms oncampus and connect with the staff and currentstudents who will answer your questions beyond this one hour event we hopeyou’ll continue to connect with us to learn more and in closing i’m goingto tell you a little bit about our how we do the work of the college whatis our mission in teaching philosophy we believe in immersive learning webelieve people learn best by doing thingsso we in all of our classes we seek to have you try out skills we seekto connect you with the kind of skills that will giveyou a leg up in the real world of professional workin these fields we’re hands-on we’re solutionsbased and we have lots and lots of choicesbecause did i mention we’re the largest college of itskind in the country but i want to say a bit about size umwhen you come to uw you are at a very large and prestigious universityit’s very large but when you’re in the college of the environmentyou’re with a couple thousand students if you think about it that’s about thesize of a small college private collegeand so it’s the kind of place where faculty and staff will know you by namewe know that when you are connected personally to your collegeit makes a difference in your happiness it makes a difference in yourproductivity and it absolutely makes a difference inyour future success so once again thank you for joining usenjoy the virtual tour and i hope you stay in touchbye bye so today i’m gonna be talking with you about one of my favorite topicswhich is poop i love talking and studying looking at describinganimal poop when i’m hiking on a trail and i come acrossa scat figuring out who which animal left that scat what whathave they been eating um uh so do that i do that for funand also for science we can learn so muchabout an animal and how it’s interacting with its environmentby looking at scats and one of the great things about it isthat it’s a totally non-invasive techniqueso animals wildlife are very elusive they’re hard to catch it’s verystressful for them when we do capture themand so finding their scats and analyzing them in the genetics lab is agreat way to non-invasively learnabout these species so the particular question i’m interestedin is how are wolves which are recolonizingwashington state how are they affecting other species in the ecosystemespecially smaller carnivores like coyotes and bobcatsso i started a study a few years ago to it answer this question and we’ve beencollecting scats in northern washington in areaswith and without wolves to compare their diets and populationsizes of coyotes and bobcats and areas withand without wolves to try to get at that question so next upuh field my field crews recorded themselvescollecting scats to show you that processhow to tell coyote from a bobcat scat in the field you’ll want to pay attentionto that and then after that i’m going to meetyou inside the genetics lab with my maskon so i will see you then all right hi uh my name is becca wendelland i’m a graduate student at the university of washingtonin the college of the environment and so i’m here withben and aiden who i’m working with on a project looking at coyote and bobcatmovement and population dynamics in response to recolonizing wolfpopulations here in washington state so population dynamics one of the waysthat we’re looking at that is trying to look at the densities ofboth coyotes and bobcats and how those might change um when there’swolves present or absent on the landscapeum so detecting coyotes and bobcats is prettypretty challenging don’t see them every day and they’re these wide-rangingum pretty elusive species however something that they do leave on thelandscape that we can find um pretty readily is scat soum that’s we’re doing today we’re out here looking forscott along some um preset routes right now um in the little pondererwildlife refuge uh here in northeast washington allright so here we are and um look we found ascat pretty exciting um so ben here is goingto take us through what sort of species we thinkthis is i guess before we get into that justbriefly wanted to go over like why we’re picking up thescat how we’re doing it so essentially when an animaltakes a poop there’s these cells that slough off and they can befound along the edges of each scat so thathappens when the animal poops and essentially we cancollect dna from those cells which we can thensend to the lab and um genotype to figure outexactly what species it was um and even down to things like sex of theanimal that pooped and who it is as an individual so umthen what kind of scat do we think this is i think this is a bobcat scatwe think that based on the segmentation we haveand the blunt ends within the segmentationalso looking at the habitat where we are we’re off to the side of the roadin a duff layer under some cover it also appears that there’s some slightscraping that is most characteristic of a bobcatcool all right so now we’re gonna collectthis scat yeah so basically we pick up the entirescat um and put it into a little ziplocbaggie that ziploc baggie uh helps to preventany sort of freezer burn since the next step for this guy isgoing to be to be put in a freezer so that the dnathat comes from those cells won’t degradehowever we want also like make sure that that scat is uniquely labeledum so the ziploc baggie then goes into one of these world packswhich has a unique number on it so uh here again we’re in the northeastarea and this is our 2153rd scat that we’ve picked upapproximately um yeah so that’s the general scat collection processand um yeah from the freezer these will then besent to the shared genetics lab in the school of environmental andforest sciences where we can do all the genetic magichi aiden branny here on the washington predator prey projectand today currently we’re looking at a coyote scat that we foundopportunistically along the road and we’re gonna collectit here so as you can see this is what we believe to be a coyotescat because it’s long and rope-like and if you can see hereyou can see a bit of a tapered end and that’s more diagnostic of what youwould see in a canid and more specifically a coyote based on the sizeso we’re gonna collect it here with this little baggie and based on the size and shape webelieve the scat to be about probably two days oldjust because of how malleable it is as welland also the smell kind of helps too well hello againwelcome to the genetics lab so here i have a scat that wecollected the field crew collected in januaryum so this is scat mv 1702 and i’m gonna uh swab itwith the to get the dna from it now once they get once they’re collectedand come back to the lab they are kind of mushy so this might not bethe fairest quiz but i would like to give you a littlequiz on what you think this is so if youremember listening to the field crew describehow a coyote scad is more kind of ropey with twisted ends and a bobcat scat haschunky segments and a more rounded end i would like you to take a stabat identifying this scat so if you could write into the chatbox right now what kind of scat you think this isokay so try to give you a good look thereokay all right okayso hopefully you’ve made your guess and now i’m going touh start the extraction so here i have a a swab it’s like a q-tip but a littlefancier and i’m going to dip it into a solutionthis is called pbs buffer and it helps to pick up the dnaand preserve it okay so now i’ve got that nice andwetted with pbs buffer and i’m just going torub it here along the outside of the scat because that’s where most ofthe predators dna is if i was interested inusing genetics to find out what the predator was eatingthen i would break the scat open and be swabbing the insides because that’swhere more of the prey dna is okay so we got a nice poopy scat hereand so i’m going to put it into one of these tubes here okay and theni’m going to add a buffer so i’m using an extraction akit to extract the dna it’s called the dnainvestigator kit and it’s good for cases where there’sreally low amounts of dna that are pretty degradedso something that maybe would be used in a human forensicsat a crime scene and so this buffer will break the cells apart and allow thedna to basically loose become a loose in in the solution they won’t be trappedin the cell wall anymore okay okay so here this is our shaker tablehere and it is set to 56 degreesso we put this here so that’s going to heat it up this is a 56 degrees celsiusand then we start and it just kind of shakes it aroundgently heats it up uh we do that for four hours okay so afterfour hours this is good and shook up all the cells broken apart we are goingto transfer the liquid into what’s calleda spin column and this has a piece of filter paper at thebottom and what’s going to happen is we aregoing to put the liquid in here with another buffer to to further helpwith the process and then we’re going to put it in thecentrifuge and that’s going to push the liquidthrough the filter paper the filter paper is goingto grab the dna everything else is going togo into this collection tube that we’re then going to umtoss and next iona rohan who was a undergraduate in seth’sshe graduated this past year won an award for bestthesis undergrad thesis um she’s going to tell us about the nextsteps and her thesis project about thecoyotes all right so my name is iona rowan uh likelaura prue said and yeah i’m gonna show you the next step which is pcrpreparation so now that we have the extracted dna we’re going to amplifythe da dna using polymerase chain reactionand instead of amplifying the entire genome we’re going to focus inon a specific region that is specific for each species and ithas a specific fragment length and that way we can tell which speciesthe sample is coming from so for eachpcr preparation we have a plate map and this will have three reagents thatare going to be the same for every plate mapand they come with the investigator kit that lauramentioned previously and then after that wehave species specific primers and these are the ones we’re using todayand these primers will target a specific regionof dna that’s a specific fragment length for each speciesso first we will create a master mix with the primers and this is the mastermix i have today and then we use one of these pcr platesso now we’re going to put 6 microliters of the master mix that contains theprimers into each well of this pcr plate and then we’re going to puttwo microliters of the dna that we just extracted into each well all right so then onceum the dna and the master mix is in every wellwe’ll put a um plate map seal over it which i’m not going to show youbut you just take this off and roll it onand then we’re gonna take this plate map intothe post pcr room where we’re gonna put it in the thermal cyclerall right so now we’re gonna put the plate map in the thermal cyclerand this will run it through if you run the dnathrough a few cycles and basically this is amplifying the dnaproduct that we have so we’re going to come out with anexponential amount of dna and thenonce we have this dna product when we do electrophoresis we send thisto a lab at yale actually and they docapillary electrophoresis which is similar similar to gelelectrophoresis but more powerful so we can see the fragmentlength of the bc specificdna okay so once we get the data back we use this program called gene mapperand this will show us the length of the fragments so for thisthis is the data from the sample mv17 that we saw swabbed earlier andthis represents the um the fragment length so the x-axisis the fragment length and then the y-axis is howintensely it amplified so as you can see thisis obviously a coyote because it’s amplifyingvery strong and the green represents the marker that corresponds tocoyotes right so after we find the species id is coyotewe will do another pcr for individual id and then once we do that we get back thedata again and load it into gene mapper and then togenotype the individual coyotes we will find the fragment lengthat the specific markers so this one you can see is that 115and 123 so this allele is a heterozygoteand yeah so then we will take this data and create basically a consensusgenotype of the individual coyote with all thefragment lengths at the different alleles and so for mysenior capstone project i used this datafor the individual id’d coyotes and then i matched them up with thelocations where the scout was collected and so icould find the density of the coyotes in specific regions in the study sitesand then i compared the density inside and outside of wolf pack home rangesand i found that coyotes had higher density outside of wolf pack home rangesthan inside which is an interesting finding because as wolves naturallyrecolonize washington state we’re going to want to see how coyotesare interacting with wolves and how they’rechanging their behavior all right well i hope you enjoyedlearning a little something about poop science and howwe use it to help understand animals and wildlife interactionsand help with conservation efforts and there are lots of opportunities toget involved in research like this in stuffs both in thefield and in the lab and so i look forward toseeing you in the q a session if you have anyquestions for me and i also look forward to seeing how many of you gotthe species id correct on the scap hey everybody thank you guys for joiningus for the college of the environment virtual visit daytoday i’m going to be talking about ichthyology at the university ofwashington my name is luke tornibetti and i’m anassistant professor faculty member in the school of aquatic and fisherysciences which is in the college of the environmenti’m also the curator officials at the burke museum of natural history andculture which is located on campus here at university of washingtoni teach primarily two courses one of which i’m going to talk about today isbiology of fishes and the other is scientific writing bothof these courses are available as either core courses or electivesdepending on which major you choose within the college of the environmentso my area of expertise is in a field calledichthyology which quite literally means the study of fishesand as an ichthyologist one of the things i get to do as part of myresearch is travel around the world to study these fishes wherethey live in nature and that takes me to places likecoral reefs or tropical oceanic islands withfreshwater mountain streams or to sometimes places like the deep seausing these deep water manned submersibles you see in the bottom leftof your screen but the other cool part of my job is getto study fishes in places where they don’t livebut still store a lot of information and that’s natural history collections likethe university of washington fish collection which ispart of the burke museum the uw fish collection has more than12 million specimens of preserved fishes many of which we get to use for ourbiology officials course so here you’re seeing on the right myphd student marta using some of these preserved specimensin our lab section of our biology officialscourse so this is a key aspect of the education system herefor a theology within the college of the environmentso why why take a course in fishes why make a career out of studying questionswell from a practical standpoint fishes are really important for our economyfor one species that’s being shown captured here the peruvian anchovettais harvested on an average of four milliontons every year that one species alone is a multimulti multi million dollar industry but more than just financial purposesfishes represent an incredibly important part of the ecosystemand they are incredibly diverse so if we think about how many species ofvertebrates there are mammals reptiles amphibians birds fishesif you add up all the non-fishes togetherit’s about equal to how many species of fishes there are so fishes make upmore than half of all vertebrates on the planetso why are there so many of them right how come theyhow do they become so diverse well it turns out that the species richness orthe diversity of fishes can really be explained by theirmorphology morphology meaning their shape or theirform and fishes take up a tremendous varietyof shapes and forms which allow them to interact with theenvironment or fill niches in a tremendous variety of waysso you get things that have morphologies like a pelagic great white shark whichis an apex predator to something like a lamprey which ismore parasitic to something like a mudskipper which is a tiny fish thatactually lives outside of the water for much of itslife so this relationship between morphologyecology and diversity is a key part of what we learnin fish 311 now one of the cool morphologies of fishes that allows themto be so successful is the evolution of jaws the jaws you guys have in yourmouth evolved in your fishy ancestorprobably 300 or 400 million years ago and over the course of that evolutionfishes have evolved a tremendous variety of jaws that allow them to eata huge number of different types of prey items and become very diversebut i think one of the coolest parts about fishes is that many of themactually existed before there were jaws so here’s just a family tree of fishesand showing at different points on this family tree are wheredifferent parts of the fish evolved and we can seehere that jaws evolved at this point in the family tree very close to the rootof the tree but there were two distinct groups thatevolved before fish before jaws even existed and thesefishes still exist today the jawless fish is known ashagfishes and lampreys and i’d spend a lot of timetalking about these groups in my biology officials course because i think they’reparticularly interesting and the one i want to share with youguys today is this group which we call the hag fisheswhich i consider probably one of the worst groups of vertebrates you’ll everstudy in biology for a variety of different reasons butthe best way for me to explain to you why these guys are the absolute worstis to bring you down into the uw fish collection find some jars of these guystake them out and show you firsthand exactly why i think they’re the worstso let’s go down to the fish collection and see if we can find somewelcome everybody thanks for coming back we are now in the university ofwashington fish collection which is part of the burke museum ofnatural history and culture and this fish collection is actually oneof the largest fish collections in the world and the largest fish collection inamerica i’m standing between two cabinets theseremovable shelves that have hundreds and hundreds and hundreds ofjars of preserved bishops and alcohol and in fact we have more than 450 000jars or lots of fishes and more than 12 million individualspecimens now the fish collection is basicallylike a library of dead fish where you can come in researchers fromaround the world and come in and take out the bookor borrow a specimen and study it you can actually take out a loan of aspecimen just like you could alone in the book in the libraryunlike libraries like catalog specimens cataloging books by the dewey decimalsystem we actually arrange our specimens by howthey’re related to one another on the tree of lifeso for example fishes that are branching off the base of the tree of life thatare more evolutionarily old or ancient are actually in thebeginning of our fish collection and as you brancharound the room we get to more evolutionarily derived or highly evolvedefficiency now because today we’re talking abouthag fishes which are ancient lineages of jawless fishespack fishes are actually at the beginning of the fish collectionso i’m actually in family number one on shelf number one on row number oneand this is actually one of the first jars in the collection when you firstwalk in so what i’m gonna do is i’m gonna grabourselves a bucket of hagfishes here i’ve got a jar of attractive stonyeye which is a species of packed fish and we’re going to take it out into thelab and we’ll take this guy out of the jar and show you why i thinkthese are truly some of the worst most disgustingcrazily evolved fishes that we have in our collection socome along with me let’s take a look here this is the washington fishcollection and we’ve got a single specimen of hagfish that we pulled outof that jar from the collection i want to show you some of the crazyfeatures of this fish that are different than a lot of the other fishes that youmight be familiar with now what we mentioned that pack fishesdon’t have jaws but they also lack a lot of the otherthings that you would associate with most fish having for example if you lookat the head of this hagfish one of the first things you might noticeis that there are no eyes in fact this creature doesn’t haveany true eyes at all what it has instead are these two whiteeye spots that are basically used to detect simplelight and dark and these eye spots are covered overwith this thick paper-like skin that goes over the bodyas we feel the skin we also recognize that man they don’t have any scaleseither unlike most fishes that have scalesthese guys simply have this leathery smooth skin over their entire bodyif any of you have ever heard of eel skin boots or heel skin purses orleather that’s basically the skin of hagfishesnot heels one of the other things that we can seeas we look along the body of hagfishes is that they have these multiplesmall little holes here which are basically homologous with the gillopenings of fishes so this is actually how they breathewater comes in and out of these holes that allows them to breatheso if you look at the front of the hagfish well we said we don’t they don’thave any true draws they do have an opening here which they can actually useto suck prey in and out and they can actuallytaste the water using these little barbels on the frontof their mouth now this is very useful because they live in the deep sea andthey’re basically sensing out dead carcasses of food that they can goscavenge on so you can imagine this thing meanderingits way in the pitch black of a deep ocean trying tosense its way towards a prey item and once it finds it it then begins to takechunks of flesh off but how does it do that without actuallyhaving a jaw well for that let’s actually look insideof a throat of a hat fish and see what’s thisso here’s sort of a dissection of a hagfish and if you look inside thethroat one of the things that we can see are these multiple rows of keratin-liketooth plates keratin is actually the material that makes up your fingernailsand your hair these toothplates are razor sharp andthey sit inside of the throat of a hag fish that is until they find aprey then they will unfurl these tooth-likeplates out of their mouth out of their throatand outside their body with the creature from alienand they will latch on to a piece of flesh on the prey item and thentwist into hole so they can pull that offso let’s imagine how this might work with a particular cray item on thebottom of the ocean for that we’re going to use a specimenof a juvenile mako shark as an example of a potential prey itemthat died and then fell to the bottom of the ocean this could be any carcass offish or whale or any other large sea creature now anyonethat has never touched a shark before and knows a little bit about sharkbiology knows that the skin of a shark is particularly tough it’s got thesandpaper like leathery uh outside but maybe very difficult for ahagfish to get through so what they’ll do is actually they’llfocus on finding small openings where they can get to the soft internal organsrather than trying to go through the skin so that opening could be maybea wound inside the body it could be the gill openingsit could be the mouth or the anus but whatever it is the hagfish will findthat bury its head deep inside of thespecimen and then just start twisting and tearing and ripping off fleshremember i said these things are the worst but you can imagine ripping offflesh might be pretty difficult if you don’t havearms to sort of push yourself off it has no arms it has no finsso essentially what these guys will do is they’ll forma knot overhand knot on their body as they’re feeding so the head is insideof the body ripping off chunks and they’ll slidethis knot down their body and use it as leverageto press off the outside of the fish and rip their head out with theaforementioned chunk of their prey that they’re basicallyeating from the inside out now while they’re doing this they’repretty blind and open to predation from other larger predators so this knotlike technique works really well for defenseand how that works is because along the sideof the body of a hagfish are these tiny little white speck poresand these are actually slime glands and these hagfish will instantaneouslycreate a big gooey mass of slime around their bodycopious copious amounts of slime that will coat the mouth and the gillsof a predator but it’ll also actually unfortunatelycoat the gill openings on the hagfish itselfso it’ll actually use this same knotting technique that it used to feedand instead of sliding it forward it’ll slide this knot backwardsand slough off a big gooey mass of slime off of its bodyinto the mouth of predator so why don’t we go back to the crash room and i’llshow you some videos of this sliming action actually happeningin real life alright guys welcome back to the classroomso you guys saw a little bit firsthand about some of the features that i thinkthat make hagfish is really really cool and also really creepylet’s see what they look like in nature when they’re being deployedso i’ll show a quick video here that shows someindividual hag fishes feeding on a baited trap underwaterand some of their predators trying to attack them and what you’ll seeis this crazy slime defense that they employ to about all themselves toavoid this predation so this is down in the deep sea at the depth of about 680meters and this hag fish is sniffing around onthis baited trap and the shark comes by and watch whathappens immediately shark bites boom mouth full of this nasty ball ofslime within just a couple of seconds let’s see with a different species let’sfast forward to different uh different predator species this is aspecies that’s called a rec fish and you’ll see the same exact thinghappen watch how fast boom mouthful gone spits it out and thewhole big mass of slime lining the inside of the mouth you can see thewisps of it there floating in the water so you may be watching this and bethinking man i’m glad that these hag fishes live deep in the ocean and idon’t have to eat them because you know i’m encountering this slimewould be pretty pretty devastating good thing i don’t have to deal with themright well not necessarily turns out that a aa truck that was carrying tons and tons ofhag fishes from uh oregon to a port on highway 101 tipped over and dumpedall of these live hag fishes onto this poor prius onhighway 101 and created this huge tremendous messcould you imagine if you’re driving down highway 101 in oregon and this happenedto you the tough part about this is trying toclean it up because as you spray water on the slime it just makes the slimeexpand so all this goes to show you is all ofthese crazy tremendous adaptations in jawlessfishes make them one of the reasons why i think they areprobably one of the worst lineages of fishes but also incredibly interestingso this is just one of 35 000 different species of fishes thatyou’ll get to learn about if you take biology of fishesand more than just slime they’ll get to learn about the ecology and conservationof these fishes too so i’ll leave you with that littletidbit about hag fishes and i hope that that spurns some curiosityand questions for me in the questions and answer sessionso thank you guys and i’ll see you soon all right i hope you guys enjoyed seeingthose videos and seeing some of the teaching andresearch spaces on our campus so laura and luke are now going to turntheir video and audio back on so that you can talk to they can talkto you guys live we already have some good questionsin the q a so go ahead and if you have morequestions just type them into that q a please don’t share any personalstudent information because everyone herecan see those questions and then this partof our webinar will wrap up in about 20 minutesat about 1pm and then we’ll start the studentand advisor we should have a one of our advisors joining usso we’ll start that q a after that so let’s see i’m going to start withthis was fun you guys who doesn’t love slime and poop come onawesome so laura i think we’ll start umstart with your video so there was i know you answered one question aboutand that was a tricky question too so maybe you want to talk about the answerto the question you asked and then there’s another question aboutum do we collect do you collect scat from herbivores oromnivores as well sure yeah so so the question was whetherobservers are ever wrong about the species idin the field and the answer is definitely yesit’s very hard to tell um there’s these characteristic features of differentdifferent species scats but they’re kind of like uswhere if you’ve you know looked in the toilet yournotice that your poop is pretty variable um it doesn’t always look exactly thesame and it’s the same with animals too um so onaverage the our field crews are correct about70 of the time coyote and bobcat scats are particularlytricky to tell apart um as you saw uh it’s very hard especially over avideo it’s a little easier like when you’re actually in the fielduh but it’s still tricky and that’s one of the main reasons we use geneticsum to verify uh the species id okay and then how about do you collectsomeone asked if you collect scat from herbivores omnivoresboth we do not uh we focus on carnivore scatsum for uh but that’s definitely a just a function ofthe particular studies that we’ve had in the lab have focused more on predatorprey interactions and so understanding thepredator diet and their population sizes you can learnthat by collecting the carnivore scats more so than the prey speciesand with prey species too often if you’re interested in knowing thepopulation size there are other techniques thatare more feasible because they’re a lot more abundantso you can do mark recaptured techniques or some other um surveysaerial flights for ungulates for example um so kind of collecting scats and doingall the genetic work it is pretty expensive forcarnivores because they’re so rare and elusive it is the best way to find outhow many of them are out there uh but first for the herbivores andother prey species often there’s other techniques that make more sensegreat thank you okay and then we’re going to skip to kind of a moregeneral question before luke we have lots of hagfish questions but i noticedthat there are three different questions here all related and someoneupvoted one too so laura you mentioned that there’s lots ofopportunities for undergrads to get involved in research so some of ourquestions are how accessible or and competitive is it to do field workcompared to lab work um how do you find lab work to dohow many positions are in each lab and how do you get involved in researchso if you each want to just talk about that maybe within your ownschools and again so under college of the environment there are differentschools and laura is in one the school ofenvironment and forestry sciences which we callsex it’s not to be confused with safs which is luke the school of aquatic andfishery sciences so if you each want to talk about that a little bit within yourown school that would be great sure i’ll go ahead and start since ialready have my mic off um so uh let’s see ini’m not sure if i i could basically speak for myself i’m not sure how otherresearchers and stuffs or faculty go aboutselecting um undergrads for re research help during the school yearit’s most feasible for students to help in the lab and weusually have um i’d say on average about threeundergraduates helping out in the genetics lab at any given timeum they usually volunteer for three to six hours per week occasionallyor have um paid positions so like iona has moved into apaid position but with wildlife work the grants are generally prettysmall so often the paid positions are prettyrare but uh for the field work um we will hirefield crews uh for the summer and sometimes the winner whichfor undergrads the winner that’s really only feasibleif you’re taking a break from school or graduatedbecause the students are full-time in the fieldwe do offer stipends that cover costs of livingand we just depending on the projects or boyoften have maybe lately uh maybe 10 to 15undergrads a year involved in summer and winteruh field work um and in terms of selectingum yeah the the positions are somewhat competitive uh ijust like to see a good academic record to know thatum you know the student is serious and forthese um entry more entry-level kind of volunteer typepositions we’re not looking for ex priorexperience so much as just like a real interest um good academicsand um just you know like a real us a strong interest so oftenstudents will take a class from me um and then just email and say do youhave any opportunities i’ll circulate that among myuh graduate students in my lab and often that’s how they end up gettinginvolved i can speak to the within the college ofthe environment there are two different majors that if you’re interested in fishor um sort of marine science um there’s themarine biology major and then there’s the aquatic andfisheries science majors and if you’re interested in field workand research the cool part about those two majors is thatyou cannot get out of this program without doing itso for sas aquatic and fisheries sciences every student that graduatesdoes a senior capstone project so as as competitive as it is to getinto certain labs and to find a research program early on in yourcareer you can be sure that by the end of your career youyou will get at least one year’s worth of research experience interningin the lab and that’s usually transformative because it prepares youfor graduate school those research experiences some of themare field related some of them are lab related so it really depends onthe type of lab that you uh find yourself in and generallyspeaking to find yourself in those labs uh it’s just like laura said is that ifyou take a class with somebody or you find on their faculty webpage that theirresearch interests you reach out or go knock on their door ummore often than not they’ll either let you work with them or they considerthey’ll point you in the right direction of another faculty member whois even a better fit my lab currently hasuh we usually have any given time about half a dozen undergraduates working inour lab and we just graduated a whole bunchin the spring so we’re looking for a new cohort umwith the marine biology major it’s less about a senior capstone project but thatis specifically a marine science field experience so ifyou want to be guaranteed that you’re going to getout to the field marine biology is the way to do it it’s usually nota year-long experience although you can make it that if youif you find the right lab but um it’s sort so those activities are reallybaked into the majors because we think it’s importantso if that’s what you’re looking for i would definitely considerthose two majors and i think my fish biology class isavailable for both of those majors great thank you and then if you want toanswer some questions about the hag fish so how does a hagfishknow if their prey is a dead fish and not just a live bottom dwellingfish that’s a great question and actually for the longest time we thoughtthat hag fishes were strict scavengers smelling their way to a dead carcass andthen eating it you can imagine if it found its way to adead carcass and they tried to feed on it and started movingthey’re not very fast and they’re not very good at seeing thingsso whatever they would start feeding on would swim away or potentially attackthem uh and there goes a loss of a food itembut we actually have videos from that samebaited underwater camera that actually shows hag fishesfinding their way not to a dead carcass but to holes or little divots in thesand where worms or mollusks were living andactually burying their head and eating outlive organisms and sucking them up so it was because of this deep seauh video camera that we actually realized that these are not justscavengers these guys are actually predators inmany cases but it just so happens a a dead meal is a lot easier to find thana large meal and i think i saw another hagfishquestion there um yeah how does the huge doesn’t theshark puncture the hagfish yeah so in many ways the the skin of a hagfishis sort of its second line of defense so that slime is sort of the first initialkind of get off me line of defense but that that hagfishskin um it really is like tough leather that’s why they make leather bagsand like leather shoes out of it so most of the time the predators aren’t able topuncture their skin if the shark’s teeth are sharp enough tothey definitely will and the uh the slime actually willprevent a lot of infections from developing on the skin so that itusually does heal up relatively quickly um there will be the in the odd instancethat a hagfish does fall victim to a predator whether it’s because it’smorally wounded or because it’s actually ingestedbut for the most part predation rates and mortality is very lowon on these high fishes so they’ve made a living doing what they dofor really three or four hundred million yearsand being relatively unchanged evolutionarily over thatcourse of time so their defense is pretty tough cool all right and then you guys canalso upvote questions too so there’s beenthere’s a couple that have been upvoted but laura i think you will bethe best person probably to address this oneso for someone who is interested in ecological restorationwhat programs in the college would you recommend are there landrestoration projects that students could get involved inyeah so we have a um a concentration in the esr so in sephsour our broad undergraduate major is called esrm environmental science andresource management and we also have some concentrationsthat students can uh kind of be involved inthat have some specific requirements and then thatthat goes on your transcripts that you have that concentrationuh one of those is restoration and we have one of the university landsthe union bay natural area it used to be a giant landfillin the 60s and it’s been restored and there’s all kinds ofrestoration projects going on there we do a lot ofour work for i teach wildlife techniques every spring and we do a lot ofcamera trapping bird surveys things like thatdown at union bay and then there’s the restoration classes where they have alot of projects going on uh we also the wildlifeis another concentration that you can have inesrm great thank you and then luke question for youi love this question we are a salmon nation so someone noticedsalmon in the pictures that you showed so the research going on at uw thatinvolves salmon fisheries and conservationyeah it was definitely not accidental that i peppered some salmon throughoutthe talk because it is a huge focus of what a lot of people do inthe aquatic and fisheries sciences of the schoolstaffs the school of aquatic fisheries sciences um specifically someone liketom quinn is a professor in our program wholiterally wrote the book pacific salmon so um there are dozens ofdozens but uh close to a dozen labs that work on salmon in some facet whetherit’s stem genetics salmon conservation wild uhhabitat restoration migration uh aging growth soabundant opportunities um a lot of them are actually coordinated in what’scalled the alaska assignment project where there is actually a summerresearch program that’s that brings undergraduate students to alaska for afield program with uh dr daniel schindler uh who’s part ofthis alaskan salmon project with a bunch of otherfaculty members so if you’re jazzed about salmonum there i can’t i’m it’s not bragging i can’t think of a better place to studysalmon than uh in sapsand kind of a related question and you talked a little bit about marine biologybut what is the difference between marine biology fish science biology andwildlife science and then this person says they’re specificallyinterested in fish so i think clearly its staffs is the way to go butdo you want to talk about that a little bit sure andand this might be even a better question for someone like sam to i can definitelytalk about it but i can let sam expand on it a little bitmore about the different majors um but yeah and sam is actually on hereso you can we can bring her in if you want but goahead sorry i just say generally speaking um the beauty of some of thesemajors specifically i’m thinking marine biologyand uh saps which are the two that are more fishy marine fish related thebeauty of them is that early on in your academic progression as a as a sophomoreor freshman the required classes are relativelysimilar so you can start you know in either one of them and thenif you decide that marine biology is more for me or stats is more for methe transition is relatively easy because the classes are the sameum so i would actually recommend both of them um if you or you can do as asas major and a marine biology minor if you want to dodouble dip a little bit um but i would say if you’re more interested in sort ofthe management and straight conservation side of fishthe fisheries the harvesting of fish then sats is the way to go and if you’remore interested in the ecology and evolution and diversityof fishes then i would say marine biology is a little bit moreuh the direction but sam could also talk about the differences andthe details of those great and we can talk about that stuff more too when weswitch to um our student panel because ourstudents can talk about how they chose their major ayanna i don’t wantyou to they’re bored so there’s a question for you on here i don’t know ifyou saw it but what’s your major and how did you findlaura’s lab yeah so i actually just graduated this pastspring but i majored in environmental science soesrm and i did a wildlife conservation trackand i found laura’s lab because i took um hercourse esrm 351 my sophomore year and i really liked it it’s like wildliferesearch techniques and you get to go on field trips and it’s pretty funum and so i reached out to her uh my at the beginning of my senior yearbecause i wanted to do my capstone with um her and i was interested inpredators um yeah so i just sent her an email andasked if her any of her grad students had any openings or needed helpand that’s how i got involved in the lab yeah caps like your senior capstone is agood way to do research as an undergradi know some people start earlier like their freshman or sophomore year butdefinitely senior year the professors are more open tohaving you work with them because you need to complete your capstone great thank you and ionia will bejoining us for the student q a so you can ask her morequestions then um and then luke so a question about what are thecommon career tracks for students who studyfish sciences that’s a great question and this isparticularly relevant because i just graduated a whole bunch of students thatare now looking for jobs just like everybody elseand they’re doing well um so if if you’re definitely hardcore researchminded where you want to study fishes for the rest of your life then you cango straight into academia and go tograduate school get your master’s or phd um and then pursue a career in auniversity or a research institution um like we have but there’s a ton ofother opportunities and some of the strength of the fish related programshere in university of washington is that we’re in seattle and seattle isactually co-located within three miles oftwo major noaa fisheries research centers the alaska center which is oddlyin seattle and the northwest fisheries sciencecenter which is right across the bridge from uwand we work extensively with both of those uh government agenciesand our job placement from sas both at the undergraduate and at the graduatelevel into a federal agency job is really reallyhigh there’s also plenty of state agency jobsthat you would be qualified for like washington department of fish andwildlife or state agency jobs other places in thecountry and we’ve actually had a lot of studentsgo into non-profit work too or consulting work where if you want to bea biological consultant for a company that is you know assessing theenvironmental impact of something on the ocean waters or estuarine waters andthey need to hire professional biologists to doassessments a career in fisheries or a degree in fisheries or fisheriesmanagement is really useful so whether you want todo non-profit government work academic work orresearch or education all of those a degree inaquatic and fisheries sciences or marine biology would be really useful all right and then one more questionhere and luke and laura will be leaving us prettyquick here so if you have more questions specifically for them please add them tothe q a here but one of those kind of broad topicswithin the college talk about biodiversity is thatdiscussed in both of your majors in schools or isthere a concentration in biodiversity or how do you incorporate that you want to go first lower okayso um and there definitely are i wouldn’t say a straight concentrationspecifically in biodiversity in the collegebut if you are more interested in the biodiversity sideof marine science for example aquatic sciencesthen i think that the the logical choice for you would be the marine biologymajor um specifically when you think about theclasses you would take in the marine biology majorthey’re divided into three main categories one of them is likeuh ecology and like ecological ecosystem level processesanother is organismal uh classes so really about the animal themselves andthe physiology of them and then a whole other trackof classes that are all about diversity and biodiversity and that includes myfish class the top marine mammals classesinvertebrate fish by uh invertebrate marine organism classes so if you if youdo the marine biology route you would take at leastuh a handful of courses that are about biodiversity um but i find that but thetheme of biodiversity and conserving biodiversity finds its wayinto um i’d say all the majors across the college of the environment for sureyeah i would i would echo that we kind of a lot of the courses havesome information and content about a diversity uh andthere are some classes more specifically about that like we have aendangered species course that uh john mars loveteaches in cefs i teach the biology and conservation ofmammals and we go over sort ofthe broad diversity of mammals go through each groupand talk about their biology and different conservation issues thatthey’re facing um and yeah and i teach an introductorywildlife course every fall uh wildlife in themodern world where again it’s kind of an overview ofthe challenges that wildlife are facing and we definitelytalk about diversity there awesome all right well thank you bothfor your energy thanks everyone for the greatquestions laura and luke you made this a really fun sessionso now we’re going to transition and you’ll meet some of our currentcollege environment undergrads and one of our academic advisors and you’ll geta chance to ask them questions so you can keep exploring majors howthey chose their major you can talk about life on campus whatthey love about uw pretty much anything so again you’ll be using the qa option to type in your questions there sowe are going to switch videos here bye thank youall right thanks so much and we’ll bring in our student panelists issac are you there there we go so i’m gonna have you guysjust go ahead and introduce yourself let’s just do italphabetically so that’s you isak hi i’m isaac he him pronouns i’m goingto be starting my senior year in the falland i’m studying eslm or you’ll hear the acronym phenomenon it’s environmentalscience and resource management um and a highlight of my experience incollege was either a study abroad that i did last summer incosta rica um studying biodiversity and land usageum all uh just feels like behind me um doingsummer research in the field as for the college hi everyone my name is georgia i use sheher pronouns i’m also going to be a senior in esrmbut i’m specifically doing a wildlife conservation focusum i think my top favorite memories so far have beena stuffed study abroad to costa rica not ease extra trip but a very similar oneum and also i just got to spend a week in yellowstone national park assistingmy professor with research so that was really funokay i think i’m next if i know the alphabet um uhmy name is regan um i she her pronouns i am a recent graduate uh fresh out ofhere in aquatic and fisheries sciences andthen double minors in marine biology and quantitative science which is ajumble of words that means i really like fish and i’m almost willing to do mathum so i would say probably the best experience in college was goingto american samoan study abroad um in part that was led byluke tournabene who just left and you got to meet umso he’s awesome and that led to a lot of work umkind of studying fish in the fish collection and then also um being in thenew burke museum as kind of a scientist on exhibit uh sothat was pretty fun um and i can’t recommend it enough all right and i don’t know you alreadymet so we’re good with that so whatquestions do you have for our student panelistsum and let’s see sam do we have sam there she is hi sam you want tointroduce yourself sure hi um my name is samantha shearer iuh go by sam and my pronouns are she her hersum and i’m the academic advisor the undergraduate academic advisor inaquatic and fishery sciences and what that means is that i work withundergrads to kind of help students get through the degree programwith hopefully the least resistance and the most opportunities but i’m alsoum there to if if there are kind of roadblocks thatcome up along the way that’s also my role is to help studentskind of navigate a super complex university system and getthe most out of their degree um hopefully so that’s what i do all right this is a goodquestion so from a student perspective and maybeif you guys just want to talk a little bit about how you chose your major butfrom the student perspective what’s the difference between marine biology anddoing esrm anyone want to chime in what the heck i’ll pipe up um i feellike um between esrm and marine biology the mainum thing i seem to notice was kind of the thereally are focused in marine biology and fisheries on the marine environment soyou’re not really thinking terrestrial much at alland esrm is really that kind of terrestrial focusso i think that that’s probably the main difference between themum and you also get you really get a reallyi think probably one of the esrm people can speak to this more but i thinklike there’s a lot of there’s a great diversity of tracks that you cantake i know there’s like a wildlife focus anduh like a forestry type focus so um you can really kind of get into thenitty-gritty of exactly what you want um with those tracksand esac i’m going to bring you in here because you are quoted in one of ourprinted brochures with having an interest all over the place so how didyou decide on esrm yeah i chose esom because it’s kindof like the general environmental science um i was interested in kind ofgeneral ecology but also like policy and social justiceum and so i found environmental uh science esm was a great way to likespecifically study the environment in like an ecology standpoint so we studytrees and we study soil and organisms um and likemarine biology is more focused on again as we can said the marine environmentum so you get a little bit of that you get like we get like a very briefum overview of that in eslm but if you want to go more specifically umlike and take more than like one or two classesuh then i would recommend doing biology but if you’re like interested in generalecology that’s the other thing is you can major in one thing um you canhave minors um or you can also just take like generalelective classes in marine biology i feel like i just want to go out andlook at seals for they um and take a class on that umso like this you don’t uh fenced in by choosing one of the two majorsum but i would say like in general if you like wants to be on land then esm isa good focus if you’re more interested in being onthe wattle then biology is a good focus cool and i think we’ll stay on this sametrack for a minute because there’s another question that came in that’srelated to that so reagan what made you majorin fish science and minor in marine biologyshe’s trying to just this colette is trying to decide between those two soyou have a very specific reason that why you did thatthat’s true when i came to the university of washington we did not havea marine biology major uh yet um and that’s actually a very newand fresh thing um that all of you will get toexperience and maybe go into if you like thatum i would say i i like the path that i chose in the endeven though i was just kind of like oh like you know i guess i’ll just minor init because i can’t major in it um but um i actually really likethe track that i chose because i think fisheriesmade me think about marine things in a very different wayyou do get a lot of that kind of marine biology okay let’s think about thecreatures and let’s think about the ecology and let’s think about everythingthat’s going on in the environment but you also get this resource levelthinking about okay well we want to you know harvest fish for ourconsumption how can we do that in a sustainable goodway and having that kind of more resourcelevel thinking was i kind of pushed me in a new directionand i learned a lot from it and i really value that experienceso um yeah that’s kind of how it went down for meso i hope that helps thank you all right we got an upvotehere so it’s like i feel like we’re on a gameshow next highest question so back to ouresrm folks what are the differentconcentrations available and maybe talk about which one you choseayanna do you want to start with that one sure yeah umso there are four different options one is like forestry uh i think it’ssustainable forestry management and then there’senvironmental horticulture and then there’s wildlife conservationand then there’s natural resource environmental restoration and i chose wildlife because i was justmost interested in wildlife but yeah all the different options haverequirements or you can do a general esrm option and kind of likepick and choose from different fields that you’reinterested in which i was also considering but then i decided to focuson the wildlife side of thingsgeorgia are you doing a focus in esrm yeah so i’m also doing the wildlifefocus um and i originally too came in thinking that i was gonna do the generalone um but quickly realized that wildlife iswhere my passion lies and so um i’ve been doing wildlife classessince my sophomore year and it’s been really great and isak what’s your focus yeahunfocused i originally was focused on the naturalresource management of focus concentration trackum and then kind of have skewed from that into the generalwith a focus on policy i think what’s really cool with the general one is thatthere’s a lot of different classes offered within esom um and what you cando is you can create your own concentration trackum and just from the gym the classes that you decide to take of the upperlevel um management classes and so that’s kindof what i did with a policy perspective great thank you and i’m going to openthis up to all of you anyone that wants to answer it so ivy isasking if there are any field projects that are not in thepacific northwest anyone know of any i know that there’ssome research oh no go ahead ayanna okayi know there’s a lot of research in yellowstone especially for the wildlifeoption and also a lot goes on in alaskaum and then like reagan was saying she went toamerica samoa so there are options uh most of them are in the pacificnorthwest i would say but yeah some of them are elsewhere yeah i’ll i’ll kind of follow up on thatso yeah alaska was one of the ones i was going to mentionwe do have alaska so our we have field site sas has a field sitein alaska students are um have the option of goingevery other year as part of a class and then there are sometimesstudents that will actually go there uh as as employees of the alaska salmonprogram and they’ll just let them work thereso that’s one of our big ones um which is outside the pacific northwestbut we also have a lot of faculty who do their researchin other parts of the world i know esrm has the samehas that as well in our in sas we’ve had a student go to senegal with one of ourfaculty and do work there on um uh freshwater snails it’s a parasiteum a parasite um project we’ve had students go to arizonastudy invasive species i know at least one of our grad students was doing workon on reptiles and so i’m not sure how thatwas aquatic and fishery sciences but it all ties in because they douh the bases they do it was invasive species and they were looking at aparticular type uh then we haveum we have faculty working in cambodia and i know they were trying to develop astudy abroad program there for students there’s some there’s some tricky stuffthere politically but um so southeast asia then um as reaganmentioned uh there’s the american civil war project luke tournament had gotten agrant to bring students for three summersrunning two um islands in the um pacific i think it got interdisruptedthis year because of covet i’m not sure what thewhether that will continue but there are definitely lots of opportunitiesto study physically outside of the pacific northwest but thenthere’s also faculty that will be doing work on um you knowuh ecology and organisms and that kind of thing thatdon’t actually reside here we have a faculty member who does coral ecologyand her background comes from hawaii so umthey’re actually growing coral in a um in a lab here which i think is prettyremarkable i know that there’s faculty in the srmthat do studies on sharks and um i’m not sure where it wassomething that the marlon brando family owns i forgot what the name of the areais one of you guys are smart enough to knowso anyway the short answer is absolutely there is a lot of it is in the pacificnorthwest because the proximity but it’s not limited to that for surecool yeah i think the marlin brandon thing i think that’s touchy arowaright which i had never heard of and then i saw pictures and it looksamazing okay so with the upvote again so are there opportunitiesto work on campus in the department rather thandoing jobs such as waiting tables or picking up recyclingyeah that definitely exists for sure um i would say i’vebrowsed that work study um a little thing they have like a littledatabase of all the jobs that are available for on campus if you um ifyou’re looking into work study um there’s you know biology departmentwork with zebrafish taking care of the zebrafish that they’re studying thereum so there that kind of stuff does existum the um like paid opportunities are a littleharder to come by um but you know they’re they’re out thereyou got to keep looking for them yeah i would add to that um i was a studentassistant with the like sex advising office forlike three years now um so those opportunities are definitely availableif you’re looking for more like admin jobs andthey’re really flexible around your school schedule sothose are really good to get into and then you learn a lot about the major too um i’ll i’ll kind of follow up on thatum a lot of times uh students might if youknow students looking for opportunities in labs they might approach a facultymember and ask for like some volunteer opportunities butmany faculty um faculty members many of their grants actually require thatthey have a line item for actually paying students to help them with theirwork sorry my cat is interloping umand so you know just getting it’s it’s worth itfor students to try to get their foot in those lab doorsnot only because the experience is amazing and worth its weight in gold butbecause a lot of times they can transitioninto paid positions and i know a number of our studentshave have been hired as certain student assistants um luke toribene who you metearlier he runs uh he curates the fish collection andthey have a grant specifically for paying undergraduate majors in saps tohelp them with i don’t know what they do but theyhandle dead fish i know that part and they’re in jars mostly i know they havea huge grant for sort of um looking at otoliths which if you don’tknow what that is it’s the ear bone of a fishwhich contains a lot of information about where that fish has been whatthey’ve eaten how long they’ve lived etc etcso there are definitely opportunities um and asuh anna mentioned there are administrative we had a studentassistant um who just graduated and she was one of our staff’s majors and shewas amazing um not only because she was agood good at doing the work but she was thereto talk to students who came in she ended up becoming kind of an ambassadorfor the major and um so that i think helpedher to sort of just even think about more about why she wasthere and what she was doing so definitely there are opportunitiesyeah and what you guys don’t see because they’re behind the scenesin the dean’s office we have two student assistantsgregory and jenna and they are making all the magic happen todayeven though you don’t see them and they so they’re getting paid to work with usin our office which is awesome they are awesome they’re rocking thiswhole video thing okay so what can high school students be doing nowif they’re interested in studying marine sciences or esrm if your school has classes likeenvironmental science i would take advantage of thatum things like biology are pretty common and it’s good to have a good foundationin those kind of subjects before you go to college uma lot of people don’t enjoy math but um it’s always good to have a good mathfoundation before you come to college um in esrm we have a minor um called iguess it’s not easter i’m specific anyone can do it but umquantitative science minor which i’m doing and i know some other studentsin environmental sciences tend to do because it’s the statistics kind ofanalytical minor and that’s a really importantskill to have if you’re in things like fisheries or wildlifescience so if you get kind of comfortable with math in high schoolthen that could help you later in college i would absolutely echothat as another quantitative science minorum that’s like the best kept secret that they don’t tell youis that math is actually going to be important you actually need to knowhow to use a computer they’re gonna make you code sometimesit’s okay it’s gonna be fine um but i definitely would echo being comfy inmath um early on and not just kind of likei’m just gonna put it off because it seems scary it’s definitely something umto do um i would say if like narrowing in onthat marine sciences thing um i in high school i did a lot ofthings like outside of class um that you knowhelped me develop my passion for marine sciences one of those things that i didis i um volunteered at the seattle aquariumum and barbara’s like umso doing a lot of stuff and building my experience based therekind of really helped me learn more about the marine environment but alsodevelop skills like public speaking and being able tokind of you know articulate things to people and thathelped me discover one of my passions so umyou know take the time that you’re outside of class to also develop whatyou’re really excited and passionate about as wellum that’s what i would say um i’ll echo uh uh georgia and reaganabout taking yo’s basics and get as much science andmath and you can in high school if you think you’re going to do a sciencedegree in college it doesn’t matter whether it’s marine sciences or asrm orstaffs or or whatever take all that basic scienceyou know ap is okay it’s less about the ap and morejust about getting prepped for it especiallycalculus if you can come to college ready tostart calculus that’s awesome even if you’re ready to start pre-calculusyou’re in a great place i’ve seen a lot of students that have had to sort ofstep back and do college algebra because they weren’tready for that that just it’s just more time and it’s a class that you know youdon’t necessarily want to be taking so absolutely do as much math and scienceum again echoing reagan if you can get out of the classroomexperiences that’s great i know not everybody has that ability because theymay not be next near um an organization that offersopportunities they may have to you know have an after-school jobthere’s lots of reasons that it might not work butyou know a lot of high schools i think require service requirements right sosee if you can find a place where you can volunteer and use that for yourservice requirement a lot of agencies will bring in students that volunteeri don’t know reagan if you got service hours for umseattle aquarium but that’s a great way to do that you know there’smost most um towns and and cities have um you know a fish and wildlifepark program some will have noah affiliatedthings some will have um um you know parks service there’slots of opportunities see if you can get that service time and that just gets youout into the field gets you you know gets you doingum doing stuff that you like but it also puts you next to those scientistsso you can talk to them about what their jobs are like and how they got there andwhat they would recommend and that’s a really invaluableum experience and my final thing was talk to an advisor at the university ofyour choice so if you’re a junior or a seniorand you’re you’re a rising senior or you’re arising junior you’re starting to think about collegeand you kind of know where you want to go and you kind of know what you want tomajor in contact those advisors most i know allof the university all the college environment departmentshave a person like me i’m paid to talk to students i want to talk to studentsas soon as they think they might want to be a safs major because it helps me tofind out what they want to do why they want to doit and how they can do this sort of preparatory stuffand that goes for most universities you’re going to have somebody that thatoccupies that role and the advisor in that programis really the best position to say this is what’s going to best prepare you formy degree uh in the case of the college environment i think somebody mentionedthat may have been luke a lot of our programs have a lot of thesame base um coursework and curriculum so that’sanother thing that you can find out so umsorry that was kind of long-winded but um talk to your advisor i’m always goingto plug that awesome and then georgie we have aquestion that is specifically addressed to you if someone wasn’t sureif they wanted to attend college of the environment uw what wouldyou tell them to get them to come to utah okay so um i have about three mainreasons i would say um firstly the smaller class sizessmaller college sizes a lot of times people arekind of scared by uw because it’s such a ginormous school which it isum but like um it was mentioned in the videos by the deanum our college is a lot smaller and if you’re gonna bein esrm or fisheries you could have classes with only like30 people and that’s a lot more a comforting feeling at least for meand it allows you to get to know your fellow students and your professorsbetter um the second thing i would say um isjust the professors themselves are super super passionate um theyare here to do research but they also i don’t know i just find that people thatreally love the environment are just have this like amazing passion forit and they want to share it with students to get students involvedso the professors are another reason to join and then thirdly the opportunitiesfor research and even um just field trips um i wouldsay almost every single quarter at uw i’ve had a class with at least one fieldtrip and all my other friends that aren’t inthe college of environment are always so jealous that i get to go on so many funtrips um they’re just a blast you learn a lot yousee amazing things i’ve gotten to go to mount rainier on field trips i’ve goneto the olympic national park i’ve gone to tidepools there’s just so many um fun opportunities and um those kind ofthings can lead to research too because um for example iwent on the staffs costa rica trip um and one of theprofessors who led that trip is professor john marsliffand he’s a bird guy and so i went birding with him every morning which issuper fun um and now i’m doing my cr capstoneproject with him so um you never know where your connectionsand passions are going to lead you great thank you and a little bit relatedto that but maybe for the other students to talk about sowhat was it about uw that sparked your interest the mostwhen you wanted when you knew you wanted to apply here kind of mentioned it olio too um i wassuper indecisive as a high schooler i knew i wanted some of the environmenti loved being outside i want to keep doing field tripsum i was like bring field trips back um and likekeep myself outside like outside of a desk job i’m in uw had the collegeenvironment uw has so many different optionsand there’s so many different things i could take atmospheric science classes icould take geology classes mean bio um i eventually said it on environmentalscience but i had a lot of options if i decided i got halfway through college iwant to change my mind into a different major that uw probablyhad one of the best majors in the world right in the country at uwstill i wouldn’t have to transfer schoolsum and so that’s what drew me to uw we had really goodprograms in a wide variety of fields does anyone have anything different toadd to that i mean i was going to echo kind of whatgeorgia and sam have been sort of talking about with the thecommunity sit down with the advisors type thing in high schooli um i live in seattle so i was just kind of like okay well uw is likethe choice i guess um but when i emailed the advisors both samand joe who is the advisor of the marine biology programspecifically they were like we want to meet youplease come sit down in our office we want to tell you everything about theseprograms we want to talk to you all about this stuffand i was welcomed even before i went thereso i think that that was something that really attracted me to uw andseeing that community that was there inside of such a large schoolawesome all right so before you all leave we’re aboutout of time here but if you wouldn’t mind just taking this quickfeedback poll just to get some feedback from you on our event today that wouldbe fabulous so that wraps up our timefor today thank you all very much for joining us for this sessioni recognized some names from our previous session so i hope you foundthis one of value as well and we do have one moresession coming up next wednesday that we hope you’ll joinus for and that one is focused on earth sciences so you’ll hear from twoof our faculty members so in the meantime please reachout with any other questions you can to stay connected with us we have alistserv that i manage so you’ll get emails from me about events like thiswe have some pretty cool social media it’s a great way to keep upon what students and what research is going on in the collegeso if you have any questions my direct email is listedhere so please get in touch thank you so much to our panelists toour students and to sam for joining us and thanks everyone i hope you enjoyedthe session and thanks for doing the feedback before you goall right take care everyone

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