C2CC Storage Environments: The Big Picture (subtítulos en español)

–to you your host, SusanBarger, from the FAIC. Go ahead, Susan. Hi, everyone. This is our lastwebinar of the year. And so keep aneye on the website for what’s coming up in 2018. The very best way to keepinformed about what’s going on with us is tojoin the announce list. It’s only two or threemessages a month. And it’s not a chat list. So if you’re not onit, please join it.And you can followus on Facebook. You can like us on Twitter. Or, yeah, you know what that is. And if you have a questionand you want an answer, there’s an army ofyoung conservators that answer questions. So feel free to send inquestions to the discussion forum. And you’ll get ananswer quickly. And on the discussionforum, people ask about how they canbe kept up-to-date. And so once you sign into the discussion forum, you can click on email options. And then you candecide how you want to be notified if there’ssomething that’s going on. And also from timeto time, we’re asked about closed captions. We have closed captionson most of our webinars. We add them after the webinarbecause they’re more accurate. So if you see a closedcaption sign like this or if you see this, youcan click on this link.It takes you to theAIC’s YouTube channel. And then you can clickon the closed caption, and you’ll get it. So that’s available for you. And probably all of thewebinars, three this year, will be captioned beforethe end of the year. You can always contact me. This is my email address. And coming up in2018, we’re going to have something onstrategic planning in January. Two webinars in February,one on security, one, the much promisedwebinar on ivory. And there’s going to beone on globes coming out, some on emergency planning. So keep an eye outfor what’s going on. Now I’m going to turn thisover to our speaker for today. That’s Alice Carver-Kubik. And so take [AUDIO OUT] OK. Thank you very much. Yeah, my name isAlice Carver-Kubik. I’m a research scientist atImage Permanence Institute. My background, my education,and my master’s degree is in collectionsmanagement and preservation. And I originally came toImage Permanence Institute to work on Graphics Atlas. If you’re not familiarwith Graphics Atlas, it’s a photograph andprint identification and characterization resource.It’s online. It’s pretty cool,so check that out. But now, I’m doingthat, and I’m also doing some otherareas of research, which is part of what I’llbe talking about today. Well, so my tasktoday is to give you the big picture of storageenvironments for libraries and archives. So if you’ve ever stood infront of this painting by David its impressive size isreally almost overwhelming. It’s a big picture. I’m going to trynot to overwhelm you or to overwhelm myself inintroducing the big picture of environmental management. However, I have towarn you there’s going to be lots of graphs. But don’t worry. We’ll walk throughthem together. Much of the informationI’ll be sharing is based on research we havedone at IPI, Image Permanence Institute. We are an independent,not-for-profit, university-based research lab. We’re located at the RochesterInstitute of Technology in Rochester, New York. We are a recognized worldleader in the development and deployment of sustainablepractices for preservation of images and cultural heritage. And we do this through acombination of research, and education, andconsulting, and training, and things like that.So what I’m presenting todayis sort of a culmination of all that we’ve done in termsof looking at environment. So this slide is really just anoutline for the presentation, what I’ll be talking about. By reviewing the typesand causes of decay, we are reminded of whyenvironment matters. Next, I’ll discuss what apreservation environment is, followed by a discussionof the research behind our recommendationsfor certain environmental parameters. I’ll then offer some strategiesfor maintaining a sustainable approach toenvironmental control. And finally, I’ll give asneak peek into what questions we still have and howwe hope to answer them. So how do collectionsmaterials deteriorate, and what causesthem to deteriorate? There are three types of decay– chemical, mechanical,and biological. Most of you already know this. But again, a reviewis always really nice.Chemical decay is sometimesreferred to as natural aging. Sometimes it’s natural,and sometimes it’s induced by environmentor other factors. Essentially, it’s deteriorationdue to chemical reactions occurring within the object. It is our goal to slowit down or to stop it. Mechanical decay dealswith the physical structure of the object. Some mechanical damage isalso induced by environment, and some is due tohandling of the object. Biological is primarilyinduced by environment, whether it’s mold or insects. Other vermin like mice andrats are another issue. Typically, we identifythe main causes of decay as light, heat,relative humidity, and environmental pollutants. In managing ourstorage environments, we focus on managing temperatureand relative humidity, while paying closeattention to dew point. There should be little tono light in the storage environment whenit’s unoccupied. So these will be my focus here. So let’s start with temperature. High temperature leadsto chemical decay. Heat is a form of energy. In order for many chemicalreactions to proceed, they need energyto push it forward. Heat causes molecularbonds to stretch and break.Chemical bonds are easier tobreak at high temperatures. And sustained hightemperatures increase the rate of chemical reactions. The rate of decay doubles withevery nine degrees Fahrenheit increase in temperature. So the image that’s shownhere– watch my little arrow. So the image here is reallyillustrating the ideal gas law, showing the correlationbetween heat and pressure. As heat increases, thekinetic energy of the atoms increase, thusincreasing pressure.The rate of chemical reactionsthat lead to deterioration follows a really similar model. As heat increases, thereaction goes faster. So as a result, dyesfade, plastics degrade, textile fibers weakenand break, paper fibers also weaken and become yellow. But this type of chemicaldeterioration is really slow. Relative humidity is ameasure of the amount of water in the air comparedwith the maximum amount of water that can be in theair at that temperature.In short, it representshow saturated the air is with water vapor. Temperature and relativehumidity are related. Warmer air can hold more water. So this illustration showsa constant amount of water at different temperatures,which results in differentrelative humidities. So my arrow isnot moving for me. I see. There we go. So here we have thesame amount of water at different temperatures. So at 55 degrees,this amount of water equals 100% relative humidity. But at 80 degrees, it’sonly 42% relative humidity. So the humidity’s sort of theratio between the temperature and the amount ofwater vapor that’s expressed as a percentage. Dew point is a measureof the absolute amount of water in the air. It is also the temperature atwhich the air cannot hold all the moisture in it,and water condenses. Sometimes it’s referredto as dew point. Sometimes you’ll hear theword dew point temperature.It’s the same thing. The outdoor dew pointand the indoor dew point are the same unless the airis humidified or dehumidified. Dew point determinesthe temperature and relativehumidity combination that you can achieve. So when we look at thispretty awesome cartoon that I actually found onthe internet, what we see is the temperatureis 53 degrees. And our dew pointtemperature is 51 degrees. As the temperaturedrops, we get closer to the dew point temperature. When our outdoor temperaturematches the dew point temperature, weget condensation. The water comes out of the air. When I was practicingthis webinar to a couple of colleagues,both of which work in museums and are curators,collections managers– and when I got to dew point,they were both like, yeah, so dew point, I never get it.So I thought, OK, howdo we do this better? And I thought,well, we experience dew point in our everydaylives all the time. So one really good example is inthe summer, if your house isn’t air-conditioned, isn’tdehumidified such as mine, if I want a cold drinkout of the refrigerator, maybe I’ll get a cold bottle ofsoda out of the refrigerator. Within a really short amount oftime, the outside of the bottle is wet. And that’s because theinterior of the refrigerator, that environment, is much coolerthan the environment outside. And I’m hitting dew point. As the bottle warms up to thetemperature of the outside air, I cross this. I cross dew point righthere, and I get condensation. Another really good example wasI was hiking in a state park, and it was a reallyhot, muggy day.And I went intoan interior space. It was a cinder block structure. And cinder blockstructures are really great for keeping sort ofthe interior space cool. A lot of buildings in theSouthwest are cinder block. So I entered thiscinder block structure where it was much coolerinside than it was outside, but the dew point temperaturewas the same throughout. Remember I said theindoor and outdoor is the same unless we dehumidify. And so when I looked atthe walls, the walls were– there was condensation. The walls were totally wet. So we had hit dew point. We had crossed that line. So essentially you just don’twant that to happen to you. You don’t want that tohappen in your collection. And I’ll sort of keepgoing and explain how you know when you’ve hitdew point or how to avoid this. So temperature and relativehumidity can be measured. No instrument can tellyou the dew point. The dew point is aresult of the temperature and relative humidity. And this is the factorthat HVAC engineers as well as collections managersare really looking at.There are sort of indirectways of calculating dew point. You can use a hygrometer,which has this polished mirror. And when the mirror cools,you get condensation on it. And then you canjust be like, there’s the dew point temperature. There’s hygrometers. There’s also– if youknow the temperature and relative humidity, there’sa really complicated calculation that’s calculus in which youcan calculate the dew point. But there’s also– I also want to point outhere this is dew point. We have 100% relative humidity. That’s your dew point as well. That’s when that’sgoing to condensate out. But anyway, going back, there’sall these complicated ways of calculating dew point,or you can use the dew point calculator. This is a resource that’sfree and available online.It’s an IPIresource, dpcalc.org. Get rid of my arrow here. And all you have to do isdial in your temperature and relative humidity,and it’ll tell you what your dew point is. And so if you’rean HVAC engineer, or if you’re acollections manager, or whatever yourjob is, and you have to pay attention to dew point,use the dew point calculator. The other point Iwant to make here is, because there’sa relationship between temperature, relativehumidity, and dew point, if one of these factors changes,the others change as well. So as air heats up, itcan hold more water, which we saw in the previous slide. At a constant dew point,when the temperature goes up, the relative humidity goes down. And when thetemperature goes down, the relative humidity goes up. So institutions that tryto improve conditions by lowering temperatures withoutreally looking at the dew point or the resultingrelative humidity may find that themoisture level is much too high for safe storageof vulnerable collections. So that’s pretty muchwhat this is showing. Let’s say our temperatureis 68 degrees Fahrenheit, and our relativehumidity is 40%.And we have a constantdew point of 42. We decide, gee, I’d reallylike our storage environment to be cooler. Let’s drop it down to50 degrees Fahrenheit. Well, look what happens to theresulting relative humidity. We end up with 76% relativehumidity, which is high. So as a basic rule, thehigher the dew point, the harder it is tomaintain cool temperatures and moderate relative humidity. Dew point is typicallythe limiting factor of mechanicalsystem capabilities. So hopefully, you’ve gota handle on dew point now. Within the handoutsthat have been provided as part of this webinar,we have a handout that describes dew point. So definitely downloadthat and check it out. If you have any morequestions, feel free to ask. I’ll answer all thequestions at the end. For the rest ofthe presentation, I’m going to put a lotof emphasis on water. In most circumstances, wateris a really great thing. For your collection,water is the cause of much of the deteriorationseen in collections. In thinking aboutthe causes of decay, temperature and water arethe most important factors. We’re interested notonly in how much water is in the room, as measured bythe ambient relative humidity, but also moisture contentof your collection. That is how much water’spotentially in the collection material itself. Much of our collectionsare composed of hygroscopic materials,materials that readily absorb and desorb water, suchas paper, parchment, leather, cloth, and photographic gelatin. Extreme changes inmoisture content cause collections materialsto expand and contract, potentially causing permanentphysical deformation. High temperature andacidic environment catalyze hydrolysis,a chemical reaction that is the majorcause for deterioration in organic materials.Hydrolysis is areaction with water resulting in the formationof one or new substances. So if the relativehumidity is elevated, and you have hightemperatures, that means that there’smore water available. The reaction is then acceleratedin the presence of an acid. This acid can come fromthe material itself, like lignin inpoor-quality paper or the sort of byproductsof deterioration in cellulose acetate film. It can also come frompoor-quality housings, or it can comefrom air pollution. Acid hydrolysis is a concernfor organic materials, like cellulosic materials likepaper as well as some plastics.Moisture is also the majorfactor behind biological decay. Mold will grow above65% relative humidity. Active mold should betaken really seriously. It can be absolutely detrimentalto collections, really to the whole collection. Mold is nottemperature dependent. Although high temperatureswill absolutely accelerate theformation of mold, as my colleagueDoug Nishimura says, he’s got mold inhis refrigerator. And admittedly, I also havemold in my refrigerator.And you’ve probablyalso experienced mold in the refrigerator. So it just sort of– it’s a humid space,and you definitely don’t need hightemperatures for mold. So here’s the uglyface of deterioration, in which water isour main culprit with help from its evilfriend temperature. The book on theleft is experiencing paper deterioration, likelyas a result of hydrolysis. I want you to noticethat the yellowing is happening from the inside out. This is common as moisture willpenetrate from the edges first. Next we have mold onphotographic material. I believe that’s agelatin printed out print. Then we have cocklingof a photograph due to extreme expansionand contraction of material, due to water absorptionand desorption. Again, we have hydrolysisof cellulose acetate film in our second row. And these last twoimages here and here are mechanical deteriorationdue to extremes in relative humidity. So now that we’ve reviewedthe types and causes of deterioration, let’s talkabout preventing deterioration. Temperature andrelative humidity are the factors that we canmanage and we can measure. Cool temperatures are better. Relative humidity shouldbe moderate to avoid excessive moistureor excessive dryness. We should always keepan eye on dew point to determine safe temperatureand relative humidity combinations. Again, use the dewpoint calculator. What’s more difficultto discern is when your collection materialfeels a change in environment.And to what extent doesit feel the change? Because water is the culpritfor most deterioration, another factor wemust consider is managing the moisture contentof the collection materials. Like dew point, this can’tbe measured directly. For a long time, manycollecting institutions took a static approach toenvironmental management. Typically, this meanskeeping conditions at a steady temperature andrelative humidity– usually 70 degrees Fahrenheit and 50%relative humidity, which is intended reallyfor human comfort. This is a problematicapproach for several reasons. The first and mostimportant reason is 70 degrees Fahrenheit is fartoo warm for your collections.70 degrees Fahrenheitis the temperature at which hydrolysis begins. Again, hydrolysisis the primary form of deteriorationfor paper, cloth, and other organic materials. Other collections maintainconstant conditions at cooler temperaturesof 60 degrees Fahrenheit and maybe 40% RH. There is absolutelynothing wrong with maintainingthese conditions. This will provide a reallygood preservation environment for most library and archivecollection materials. Maintaining astatic environment, however, also uses anincredible amount of energy. In nontemperate climates,the HVAC systems are constantly fightingthe outdoor highs and lows in both temperatureand relative humidity. HVAC systems are nottypically designed for this. The energy usage translatesnot only to a huge carbon footprint, but also to money. Maintaining constantconditions is really expensive. So again, in terms of achievingthe goal of all collecting institutions providing the bestpreservation environment we can to help these materialslast as long as possible, a static approachat cool temperatures and moderate relativehumidity is absolutely fine. However, culturalinstitutions are facing financial constraintsdue to a lot of factors. HVAC operations are a bigbill for most institutions.I think the HVAC billfor most institutions are as much and often morethan even staff salaries. So we’re talkingmajor money, which I’m sure you’re well aware of. So when thinkingabout how we manage the environment forcollection storage facilities, we have several reallylegitimate concerns. And they are, what arethe upper and lower limits for temperature andrelative humidity? What is meant byavoiding extremes? What is happening tothe collection materials when there is a sudden changein environment due to equipment failure or a power outage? What is happening to theobject when we bring it from one environmentinto another environment in order to provide access? What about slowchanges in environments that occur over several months? It’s these oftenunanswered questions that lead us to erringon the side of caution and pushing towarda static approach to environmental control.What I hope to show you isthat, through our research, we have found thatmany of these concerns are not as frighteningas they seem. So what is the big picture? I promised you a big picture. Sustainability isthe name of the game. Because energy costscontinue to rise and squeeze the already tight budgetsof collecting institutions, we need to figureout ways to maintain a high level of preservationfor our collections while saving on energyconsumption, which in turn will save money andreduce our carbon footprint. We do this by taking what’scalled a dynamic approach to environment. A dynamic approach means setpoints are adjusted seasonally in order to keep spacescooler and drier in the winter and warmer and morehumid in the summer, while staying withinthe temperature and relative humidityparameters that are considered acceptable formaintaining a preservation environment.Depending on your geographicallocation and your building envelope, this may also meannightly and weekend setting adjustments. Some institutionschange the set points, so change their temperatureand relative humidity levels. And some actually shutdown their HVAC system during nights and weekends whenthe building is unoccupied. This can be particularlyeffective in institutions when the collection spaceand staff or visitor spaces are shared. And we’re going to go more intodetail about this, talk more about this. But the first thing I want toaddress is chemical stability. So the first thing we need todo is keep our temperatures low.There are safe and riskzones for temperature. Temperature can fluctuatewithin the safe zone, the green and yellow here. Managing high and lowtemperature extremes is more importantthan maintenance of steady temperaturesyear-round. I’m going to say this againbecause this is really the important pointwe need to make here. Managing high and lowtemperature extremes is more importantthan maintenance of steady temperaturesyear-round. So essentially, wedon’t want to get here. We don’t want to be 20 degreesCelsius, 68 degrees Fahrenheit. We want to stay within thissort of 55 degrees or lower. So generally cooler temperaturesare better for preservation. However, some materials shouldnever be in frozen storage. That’s what we have down here. This is our frozen storage. For example, some photographicprocesses, glass plate negatives, or internal dyedfusion transfer prints, more commonly knownas our Polaroid SX-70, should not be frozen.And paintings, for example,should be kept above 54 degrees Fahrenheit. In a mixed storagesituation, you want to get yourtemperatures as low as you can for the collectionmaterials you have. The second thing that we wantto look at is relative humidity. We want to avoid extremesfor long periods of time. High relative humidityequals more risk for damage. An RH of 30% to 55% is reallygood for most collections, particularly collections madeof hygroscopic materials. Extended low RH below25% can eventually lead to the loss of bound water.Bound water is the water that’snecessary for the flexibility of objects. And it’s actually necessaryfor the molecular structure of the object. If we lose thisbound water, it’ll lead to permanent damagedue to brittleness. It can also lead tocontraction of the object and possible mechanical damage. Extended periods ofhigh relative humidity, our primary concernagain is mold. But we can also getexpansion and contraction or extreme expansion. And again, if we haveour temperatures high, we have all this water availablefor chemical deterioration, for hydrolysis. Like temperature,relative humidity can fluctuate within these safezones, within that 30% to 55%. The important thingto take away is to avoid extremes for longperiods of time, to avoid 25% or lower, to avoid65% or higher. We don’t want this forlong periods of time, and I mean a month or more. Because your collectionwill not actually feel short, isolated incidents. How do I know this? I’m going to discuss someof our research findings that lead to these factsand the justification for our dynamic approach toenvironmental management.Our research as well asresearch by other institutions in the UnitedStates and in Europe all point toward adoptinga sustainable and dynamic approach toenvironmental control. And so these arethe facts that I’m going to sort of expand upon. Thermal equilibration is fast. Moisture equilibration is slow. Ambient relativehumidity will have an impact over reallylong periods of time. Enclosures help. There’s a relationshipbetween temperature, the relative humidity,the dew point, as well as yourcollection materials. So before I get into sortof expanding on these facts, I want to tell you a little bitabout the experiment that we did, in which we kindof came to these facts.So shown here is agraph of the temperature and relative humidity profileused in our experiments. The profile wasdesigned to represent eight-hour and 16-hour setbacks. That means thatthe temperature set point was changed at timeswhen the institution would be closed. The relative humidityprofile was a mirror image of the temperature profile. This is what we expect tosee at a constant dew point when only thetemperature changes. This will also maintain aconstant moisture content in the room. So I’m going to actuallywalk you through this graph. So what we have hereis this is our profile. The graph comes fromeClimateNotebook. eClimateNotebookis IPI’s software for environmental management. You can take any data logger,upload your digital data into it, and automaticallyit will graph it for you and also tell you when you’reat risk for deterioration. It’ll tell you if you’re atrisk for mold or chemical deterioration and all of that. And this is kind of whatthe graphs look like. So on the top here, we haveour temperature in bold.So the darker coloris the temperature. On the bottom herein the lighter red, we have relative humidity. Our temperaturescale is over here, and our relative humidityscale is over here. And at the bottom is time. These experiments were ledby Jean-Louis Bigourdan, senior researchscientist here at IPI. So when I talk about thisresearch and I say we, I really mean Jean-Louis. What he was interestedin was determining temperature and moistureequilibration rates for collection materials. That is, when doesthe collection feel a change in environment? So a data logger– so here’s a data logger– was placed in thecenter of books, in the center ofstacks of paper, and stacks of photographs thatwere both matted and unmatted. And that’s how wemeasured kind of what the internal temperatureand relative humidity was and how fast they werecoming to equilibration. I just want to say that thewebsites for the dew point calculator andeClimateNotebook are also in your sort ofresource handout. The photographs andpapers were also housed in different enclosures,such as metal edge box, museum case, and a portfolio case.So we’re testing out differentenclosures here as well. So let’s look at our first fact. Thermal equilibration is fast. That is, the collectionfeels a change in temperature pretty quickly. Remember that briefchanges in temperature, particularly high temperatures,will not cause your collection much damage. Chemical deterioration’sa really slow process. It is sustainedwarm temperatures that will eventually lead tochemical decay like hydrolysis. The data that’s shown here isfairly representative of most collection materials.It takes no more thanfour to six hours for 90% equilibration. Moisture equilibration is slow. At a constant temperature,it will take a hardcover book on a shelf at least a monthbefore the entire book has equilibrated, orfully feels the change in relative humidity. A stack of mattedphotographs or a stack of paper in an enclosure takesabout the same amount of time to reach full moistureequilibration. So here is a comparison oftemperature equilibration between the ambient environmentand the core of a book. The red square lines arethe ambient temperature, and the rounded bluelines are the conditions in the center of the book.Notice the thermalequilibration is fast and reaches nearlythe same temperature as the ambient with eachchange in temperature. So again, this red linehere is our ambient, and the blue line justbelow it is the book. So you can seethat the whole book feels that change intemperature almost immediately. It’s pretty fast. So I showed thisa few slides ago, but it’s just areminder of the profile we used in this experiment. The change in relativehumidity mirrors the change in temperature. The temperature is changingfrom about 20 to 30 degrees Fahrenheit, and therelative humidity is changing 50% to 30%. So again, the top line indark red is our temperature. The bottom in a lighter redis our relative humidity. It’s not always going to be red. They’re going to bedifferent colors. Because moistureequilibration is slow, it takes a month or longer fora book or a stack of photographs to reach 90% equilibration.So it won’t surpriseyou that when we put the data loggers inthe center of these materials, the materials didn’treally fully feel the change in relativehumidity during these setbacks, these changes in temperature. There really isn’t much toshow because they really didn’t feel much at all. But Jean-Louis did look atdifferent kinds of enclosures and how they impactmoisture equilibration. While temperaturecycling did not have much of an impacton the relative humidity levels in thecenter of the stack, the enclosure type did have animpact on the microenvironments in the box.So let me walk youthrough what’s happening. So as you can see, weplaced a data logger in the kind of freespace within the box. And I know that when we storematted photographs or store anything, our box isjust slightly larger than the materials themselves. We don’t want allthis free space. But for the sake ofexperimenting and seeing what the microenvironmentwas happening, we needed enoughspace for the logger. So there it is. Over here, what wehave is our graph. I want to walk youthrough the graph. So what’s shownis the temperature and relative humidityinside the box. So remember that our ambientconditions mirror one another. Temperature goes up,relative humidity goes down. The collection first feelsthe temperature change. And this is our dark blue line. This is what this loggerhere is experiencing as the temperature changesin the dark blue line here. And you can seethat it’s basically feeling what’s happening. It’s pretty immediate. But this lighter line, the lightblue here, is the moisture.That’s the RH andthe sort of moisture that the logger isexperiencing, what’s in that microenvironment. So the temperatureincrease first causes a reallyshort-term desorption of the materialsitself, in which a small amount of moisture,a small amount of water, is forced out of the material. And this is shown as avery brief and very minor increase in relativehumidity inside the box. So you see this spike here? As the temperature goes up,we get this very brief spike in relative humidity asthe increase in temperature is pushing water outof the materials. Then, moisturediffusion takes over and controls the microclimate. That is, the ambient relativehumidity and time take over. So we see the relativehumidity start to drop over the period of time. Now this decrease intemperature here– so now thetemperature’s dropping– it pushes moistureinto the stack. So the moisture is now beingpushed into the materials, causing a temporary decrease inrelative humidity in the box. So we see this blip here. Again, the ambient relativehumidity takes over. What I want to point out isthat in looking at these graphs, pay close attentionto the scale. Over here is our scale. The change in temperatureis causing very brief fluxes in relative humidity. And the relative humiditychange is really, really small.It’s only a few percent change. Another thing tothink about here is while the centerof the object is not feeling much with thechanges in relative humidity, the edges of the objectand this print on top is likely experiencingthe same conditions as the box’s microenvironmentshown in the graph here. What is happeningis that there is what’s called amoisture gradient throughout the stack ofphotographs, books, or papers. Moisture slowly diffuses throughthe entire object or stack. And so you have sort ofmore moisture at the top than in the middle. We’re going to discussthis more later. But I just want tointroduce this idea. Jean-Louis tested severaldifferent enclosure types. So I showed all of those. And so here we compare theambient relative humidity, which is the green line,with the relative humidity inside a metal edge cardboardbox, which is the blue line, and the museumcase, which is red. So notice the relative humiditychanges inside the museum case follow the same patternas the cardboard box, but they’re less extreme. Enclosure types domake a difference in buffering relativehumidity changes. So again, we can see this blueline is our cardboard box. This is the exactsame data we just looked at in the previous slide,compared with the museum case, which is kind of less extreme. So Jean-Louis repeated his testsusing a more realistic profile, in which there was a gradualchange in temperature and relative humidity overa period of eight hours.That’s the profileseen on the left. Like before, the relativehumidity in each profile was adjusted to maintainconstant moisture content in the space. The relative humidityprofile was the mirror image of the temperature profile. The results of the datafrom the core of the book are on the right. As you can see, the thermalequilibration, the temperature, is fast and follows thechange in temperature of the ambient temperature. These are the dark lines on top. Blue is the ambient temperature. Red is the inside of the book. Moisture equilibration is slow. These are the lighterlines beneath, with the red being the relativehumidity inside the book.So also notice the changein relative humidity in the center ofthe book actually follows the changein temperature and then gradually changing asthe ambient relative humidity takes over. So in short, don’tsweat the small stuff. Short-term relativehumidity fluctuations are not fully experiencedby the collection objects. Short-term temperaturefluctuations will not last longenough to cause any chemical deterioration. During the courseof this research, we also began to seea dynamic relationship exists between the temperature,the relative humidity, and the collection itself. If there is enough hygroscopicmaterial in a closed space, the material iscapable of stabilizing the relative humidityfluctuations otherwise caused by these changes in temperature.Small quantities of moistureare absorbed or desorbed by the collection materialsresponding to the temperature cycling. And this actually contributesto maintaining a steady ambient environment. So we’ve already seen this. The temperature changes arepushing moisture in and out of the collection. So if you remember way back inour definition of dew point, I described aphenomenon that occurs. When the temperatureis lowered in order to maintain betterstorage conditions, the relative humidity rises. And that’s what’s shown here. Generally, this is true. And this was the basisof our testing profile. That the RH is the mirrorimage of the temperature. However, this is actually what’sobserved in an empty room. So we took an empty, sealed,moistureproof enclosure and subjected it to changesin temperature only. So what we had wasa large acrylic box we put in ourtemperature and humidity controlled walk-in chamber. After the box wasplaced in the room, the box was sealed so that theambient relative humidity was actually sealed inside the box. So now we have thissort of microenvironment that we’ve created. We then only changed theambient temperature in the room.We used a similar test profilein which the temperature set points werechanged for 8 or 16 hours, which you can see here. As you can see, therelative humidity goes up as the temperaturegoes down, as expected. The swings in relative humidityare actually significant. There’s about a 14% changein relative humidity with every five-degreechange in temperature. This same enclosure– whichis actually imaged here, so we have a picture of ouracrylic enclosure that we can seal– was filled with hygroscopiccollection materials.So we have books. We have boxes that are fullof photographs and paper and documents andall sorts of things. When we look atthe graph, notice the swings in relativehumidity are minimal. Also notice the increasein relative humidity as the temperaturegoes down, followed by a slow decline in RH. The changes in temperature arepushing some of the moisture into and out of the collection. This water is contributing tomaintaining a relatively steady relative humidity. So think of itlike your freezer. We all know that the morethermal mass, the more stuff, we put in our freezer, themore efficiently it runs, the less energy it’lltake to run our freezer.So we can kind of thinkof our hygroscopic mass in the same way. The more hygroscopicmaterial we have in the room, sort of the morestable our relative humidity’s going to be. It’s a contributing factor. So based on this researchand looking at the research by others, we developedsome strategies for a sustainable approachto environmental management. We had alreadyseen that setbacks have very little immediateimpact on the collection.We felt like these werepretty good strategies, but we really wantedto test them out as well in a real situation. So spoiler alert, theseare pretty good strategies, and they work. And so let’s look at that. Many libraries do not haverelative humidity control, including ouruniversity’s own library. So we used our own library atthe university as a test lab. And the university librarywas really, really gracious to allow us to sort ofexperiment in their collection space and in their stacks.So we implemented nightlyand weekend HVAC shutdowns for a year. Our questions were, whatwill the collection feel? And is this a goodway to save energy? Our library has fivezones, each of which have independent controls. And here’s our chart. In zone B here, wehad no shutdowns. So nothing was changed. We had a static environmentin terms of temperature. In zone D, the HVAC was turnedoff for up to eight hours. Similar to ourother experiments, we gathered data fromthe ambient environment, the core of various materials,and the microenvironments, so the different box types.This graph shows theambient conditions from August to March inzones B and D. So again, no setbacks or shutdowns in Band eight-hour shutdowns in D. D is the orange line in thezone in which the shutdowns were implemented. You can see that there’sblips in temperature that correspond to the shutdowns. So if you look reallyclosely here, in red we have these little spikesand drops in temperature. So that’s when wewere shutting down. But you can also see that theshutdowns had no overall impact over the relative humidity. Instead, the relative humidityfollows the seasonal trends. The changes in relativehumidity are the same in zones D and in B. While we have seen thatmoisture equilibrium is slow, the collection materialswill reach equilibrium with the ambientenvironment within a month.This graph compares the ambientrelative humidity conditions in zone B, where therewere no shutdowns, with the core of a book. The internal changesof the book follow the trends in the ambientrelative humidity. It doesn’t feelshort-term changes. But it does fully feel sustainedchanges in relative humidity. This reinforcesthe notion that we need to pay attentionto extended periods of high and lowrelative humidity. So we thought that perhapsif an institution did have relative humiditycontrol, implementing a stepped seasonal profile maydelay moisture equilibration of materials. What we found wasthat it can depend on the type of enclosure. The core of the objects inthe metal edge cardboard box did reach full equilibrium,but it was delayed. The museum case andthe portfolio boxes did a better job bufferingthe relative humidity. So in this graph here, we havethis sort of stepped RH profile where with the seasons,we’re stepping it up and down to be drierin the winter, more humid in the summer.The red line isour cardboard box. We can see that it actuallydoes reach equilibrium. It’s just delayed. And then here, we have ourportfolio box and our museum case. And they never reachfull moisture equilibrium to this higher RH. So let’s move fromour research lab into what we call thewild, actual institutions. Some institutionsare implementing these strategies for sustainableenvironmental control. So one of the things thatImage Permanence Institute does is we actually have consulting. And so we have acouple of consultants that go out to institutionsall over the country and look at the HVAC,look at the collections, and help makerecommendations for how to maintain a sustainablepreservation environment. And so this is an institutionwith which we consulted. And you can see that inthe beginning of the year, they were implementing astatic approach, maintaining steady temperatures ofabout 65 degrees Fahrenheit and a relative humidityof about 40% to 45%. This is a really goodpreservation environment. But midyear, under kindof our consultation, they started a dynamic approach. They implemented nightly andweekend shutdowns as well as seasonal setbacks. The storage spaces are coolerand drier in the winter, more humid in thesummer and warmer, while staying withinthe safe limits that we discussed earlier.And this institutionhas reported back to us that they have majorsavings in their HVAC bill, in their energy bill. So this is oneyear’s worth of data. And I have to apologize. This says one day. It should say one week. So this here is oneweek’s worth of data from the same institution. And this is fromthe month of June. Like our experimental data– so actually whatwe’re showing are changes in temperature, whichare the shutdowns at night. So these sort of upsand downs in temperature here are shutdownsduring the night. So like our experimentaldata, the relative humidity follows changes in temperature. The data looks alot like the data from the self-buffering test.Interesting. So as the temperaturedecreases, the relative humidity also decreases slightly,rather than increasing, due to this buffering effect bythe hygroscopic collection material itself. Notice that the changesin relative humidity– remember scale– are very, very minimal. It’s unlikely that thecollection is really fully feeling orexperiencing these changes in relative humidity. And these two lines are justthis particular institution has two data loggersin one space. So this is two data loggersin two different places in their storage environment. And again, this should sayone week’s worth of data. So we still have someunanswered questions. We know it takes a monthor so for full moisture equilibration. But remember thatmoisture gradient? What’s happening tothe skin of the book? What’s happening to thething on top of the stack? We need to better understandthe self-buffering phenomenon. And we’re also interested tosee that if an institution has no RH control likeour library, can we use the hygroscopicnature of the collection to control therelative humidity just by manipulating temperature? So the moisture gradient issue,again the outside of the object or the thing on top of the stackfeels the change in environment first.This graph shows theambient relative humidity compared to a microenvironmentin two different kinds of housings. This is an indication ofwhat the skin of the material is actually feeling. We are currently working ona project that actually looks at the skin, or thebindings, of bound volumes to determine theirresponse to changes in environmental conditions. We were interested in therate of moisture absorption and desorption and the amountof expansion and contraction of the materials.This type of researchhasn’t been done on books yet because books are reallycomplex composite objects. They’re three-dimensionalobjects. And they’re usually made with avariety of different materials and also made in avariety of different ways. All of these different materialsabsorb and desorb moisture at different amountsand in different rates. Because these materialsare all bound together, they’re also restrained. The book is restrained sortof by itself as well as by the other books on the shelf. And this may increase thestrain the book experiences as it expands and contracts. So through experience, we knowthat books expand and contract with changes in environment. Many of us who work in librarieshave seen this expansion and contraction. Vellum bound books areparticularly responsive. I’ve heard storiesof binding splitting on books or booksflying off the shelf like that scene inGhostbusters due to changes in relative humidity.So I actually have a videohere now that I want to show. I think I need some help, Mike. How do I– to get the video up? The video may not work. We may have atechnology fail here. No worries. I’ll see if I can re-upload it. I believe you. No worries. It was working two hours ago. But essentially, I’ll– we’lllook at the picture first. Essentially what we have is wehave these books on a shelf.They’re laid flatjust to kind of show the expansion and contraction. And this is in ourwalk-in chamber. The relative humiditystarts at 60%. We drop it to 25%, andit comes back up to 60%. As the relative humiditydrops, these books respond. And they actually open up. So what’s happening isas the relative humidity drops, the binding, thematerials, contract. And it kind of acts as a lever. And it opens the book. And this area downbelow will show– it sort of highlights wherethe areas of movement are. This was a video that wasdone in MATLAB by my colleague Andrew Lerwill, who had kindof started this project. So this sort of shows thebook opening and closing as the environment changes.So the question that weneed to answer is, so what? Is the movement ofthe books leading to permanent deformation? Or are these objectsactually fine? And they’re just respondingto changes in environment like they have been forcenturies, in some cases. So this book here and this bookhere are both vellum bound. And they’re pretty responsive. But I think they’re both 18thcentury books, maybe early 19th century books. I think they mightboth be 18th century. And these books areactually in great condition. There’s nothing wrongwith these books. Vellum is a reallystrong material. So we just need tofigure out, so what? Does it matter? Mike, I’m going to move forward. So no worries. If we get them to work, great. If not, I probably won’tcry myself to sleep. So what we’re usingto determine sort of what the outsideof the book is feeling is a photogrammetry techniquecalled digital image correlation.And this is to sortof study the response as the collections materialschange to relative humidity. The way digital imagecorrelation, or DIC, works is we put a random dotpattern, and we apply it to the surface ofthe test material. So here’s our dot pattern. It’s random. The materials are thenimaged at regular intervals with two cameras, whichare set up in stereo. And that’s what is shown here. We have this sort of apparatus,a tripod with this apparatus. And we have twocameras here and here, which are imaging atregular inter– intervals. That’s hard to say today. These images are then runthrough a special software program that tracks themovement of the dots as the materialexpands and contracts due to water absorptionand desorption. And that corresponds with thechanges in relative humidity.The software measuresthe displacement of the dots, how far theymove, and whether or not they actually moveback to the same place. The displacement is thencalculated as strain. The software gives numericaldata in a spreadsheet as well as a 2D and 3Dmodel of the object imaged. So here’s actually our 2D modelof these samples of parchment. So with this experiment,we started off by looking atindividual materials, completelyunrestrained, in order to get a sense of the behaviorof the materials themselves before they’re sort ofbound and restrained.So here are several examplesof 19th century parchment. These samples were exposedto three different profiles. Actually, they wereexposed to a total of I think six different profiles. But these are three sortof desorption profiles. All of these profilesall across the board start at 50% relative humidity. So in our graph here,we have one profile that started at 50% relativehumidity, dropped to 30% RH, and then came back to 50%. The next one, we did50% to 20% to 50%, and then finally 50%to 10% RH to 50%.You can see that with each 10%decrease in relative humidity, the negative strain increased. Negative strain just showscontraction of the object. So positive strain is expansion. Negative strain is contraction. So it’s just showing youhow much it’s contracted. What we can see here is thesepieces of parchment or vellum. They started at 0% strain. And our strain levels areactually pretty significant. We get up to 3%strain, which is kind of a lot for these materials. But when they return to 50%relative humidity, they relax. And they come back moreor less to square one. They come pretty close to zero. This is probably not of majorconcern, this teeny tiny bit.This is 0.01% strain,which is not something you would ever actually see. The data can alsobe output as video. So here we actually havea two-dimensional video. And this video isalso parchment. It shows 50%, 30%, 50% profile. And the color patternof this sample indicates the amountof strain experienced by the object, which is shownkind of in this scale here on the right side. What we found is thatthe materials initially respond really, really quickly. And then there’sa shoulder, which moisture diffusion slows downbefore reaching equilibrium. We can actually see thiswhen it’s graphed out. This is the response tomoisture change fast. But then we kind ofhave this slow change as it reaches equilibrium. You can also see thatalthough the strain is larger, thus the amount ofdesorption is greater as the relativehumidity is decreased. And the materialreaches equilibrium in the same amount of time. We hit this point herethe same amount of time, whether it’s 30%, 20%, or 10%. And this is totallyexpected based on what is known aboutmoisture diffusion. This is known as fixedlaw of diffusion.So regardless ofthe jump in change, the rate is about the same. I’m not sure ifit’ll work, but is it possible to bringup the second video? We’re getting asecurity notification that’s stopping thevideos from going through. Sorry. No problem. What you’ll see in thisvideo, what you would see, is that these piecesof parchment curl up. Some of them rollup completely, and I wasn’t even able to getcomplete data off of them. But once we returned to50% relative humidity, they flattened right back out. Now there’s still a lot ofresearch to be done here. I have nothingconclusive to say other than these materialsare behaving the way I expect them to behave. And I don’t think 10% relativehumidity is particularly good for any of thesematerials for a lot of reasons. But I think 30%is probably fine. So we just havea lot more to do. This is actually an experimentthat’s ongoing right now.I’m currently kind of two anda half years into a three- to four-yearproject on this one. So we’re actually on tothe sort of second stage. We’re looking at boundmaterials themselves, and we’re particularlyinterested in the amount of strain that happens onthe spine of the book here. Because this is where we tendto see damage is in the spine. And this would be another video. But basically, this isa vellum bound book. And it shows thebook as it reacts to a decrease inrelative humidity. And so the relativehumidity’s dropping. And it’s doing just whatthe other books were doing. It’s sort ofopening and closing. And again, you can seethat this book is actually in great condition,besides the dots that I’ve painted all over it.And there’s reallynothing wrong with it. But I’m going to see if I canactually induce some damage. What is it going to take toinduce damage to this book as well as other books? I have books that areclothbound, leatherbound, vellum-bound. I have full binding, quarterbindings, half bindings, and so on and so forth. So I’m really kindof in the middle of looking at thebooks themselves. So I will be speaking aboutthis at the AIC conference in Houston.So hopefully by theend of May, I’ll have more to say about this dataand kind of what it all means. So kind of moving forward,the next thing we really want to explore is at lowtemperatures, accelerated chemical decay is notreally a big concern. But again, what is aconcern is the moisture content of thecollection as it relates to mechanicaldeformation and to mold. Mold, again, will growat low temperatures. Our next area ofstudy, we hope, will be to determine howchanges in temperature changes the moisturecontent of the collection.We’re not as focusedon how much moisture is too much in terms of howhigh the relative humidity is in the ambient room, but on howmuch water is in the collection and how much waterin the collection is too much or too little. With this, we’llcontinue to explore the self-buffering phenomenon. There’s a lot more researchthat needs to be done there. We’re also interested in howto maintain constant moisture content during timesof access by adjusting environmental conditions instorage areas and study rooms.So we actually havewritten a grant, and we’re waiting tohear whether or not this project will be funded. We really shouldhear any day now. So fingers crossed on that. So conclusions, sorryabout all the text. Short-term fluctuationsare not fully experienced by thecollection objects. But depending on yourbuilding envelope as well as your climate, shutdowns andsetbacks can save money. Again, you canshut down entirely. But if you’re inFort Lauderdale, shutting down yourHVAC is probably not the best idea becauseit’s just so humid there. But you can set it back. You can change your set points. This will save youa lot of money. And it’ll reduce your carbonfootprint considerably and will do really noharm to your collection. It’ll do so little harm to yourcollection that I made a typo and typed it twice. So there you go. Stepped seasonal RH profile maydelay moisture equilibration of your materials. Enclosures help. But when we say enclosureshelp, consider time, space, and money. In managing ourcollections, we all know that our museumcases are more expensive, and they take up more room thanour metal edge cardboard box.Both are really goodhousings for our materials, but some are more expensiveand take more space. So I’m not advocating forrunning out and rehousing your entire collection. But moving forward,this is just something to keep in mind,especially for your really sensitive collections. And then thecollections material helps to buffer relativehumidity fluctuations and can actually minimizemoisture content changes at the center of the object. And I think this is somethingthat we also empirically know, but now we also knowthrough experimentation. When I was in graduateschool, one of my professors was saying, if you havea box and it’s not full, put mat board in it. Because you want tofill up that space. Because again, you have thissort of hygroscopic mass that’ll kind of bufferthat empty space. And you’ll get sort of lessfluctuation within the box.Your collection reallyisn’t feeling it. So with that said, Ireally want to thank Connecting to CollectionsCare for inviting me. This has been anawesome opportunity to share this informationand to share our research. I especially want tothank the National Endowment for the HumanitiesDivision of Preservation and Access. All of the researchI’ve just gone through was funded by the NEH. So thank you to them. And thank you toyou for joining me. So I think now is whenI answer questions. That’s right.That’s right. And I just want to let you knowthat I will post the YouTube addresses for the videoswhen I post the recording, so you’ll be ableto get the videos. So let’s start. Linda Bess said,”We lightly place plastic bags over objects onexposed shelving in the event of water from fire suppression. Is there any positiveor negative impact from this practice? Is the percentage ofpotential deterioration from using plastic greater thanthe off chance of alleviation of fire suppression?” And there’s quite a bitof discussion about this.So if you want toanswer that question, we’ll go into the discussion. Yeah. There’s probably somepros and cons there. I think you’re creating anadditional microenvironment, which is OK. If your relativehumidity gets too high, the moisture will penetratethe plastic eventually. I mean plastic is not totallya 100% barrier for moisture. So what I wouldbe concerned about is you want to have theright microenvironment. So you’re sort ofaccidentally creating an extra microenvironment. So yes, it probably will kindof add to a buffering effect. But if you have toomuch moisture going on, if there’s too muchmoisture in your collection, or too much moisturekind of gets in there, you might have toomuch water present. And you might end upwith pockets of mold. We see this sometimes in compactshelving, where there’s not enough moisture exchange. If the shelves are actuallytoo close together, you’re not gettingenough moisture movement between the collectionsand the outside air. Moisture equilibrationis a constant thing. It’s not like youcome to equilibration and it’s like, there’s an equalamount of moisture in your book as there is in the air.Moisture is actually in constantmotion moving in and out. You do have the sameamount of moisture in the book and the air. But it’s still moving. It doesn’t stop. And so if that moisture can’tget out and it gets trapped, you might actuallyhave a problem. So you just really needto keep aware of that. You might want toput a data logger kind of under one ofyour plastics just to see what thatmicroenvironment is, so you’re aware of whatit is and kind of see what’s going on there.That would be– we advocatefor when you are monitoring, leave your monitor in one space. You don’t want tomove it around. Because the point is youwant a year’s worth of data to see what your environmentis actually doing. So you might want to geta couple of monitors just to dedicate to puttingunderneath that plastic sheeting so you knowwhat that environment is. Because you just want tobe careful that you’re not creating the wrong environment. But yeah, I meanthat’s a good question. But what’s worse, right? A fire and dousingyour collection with water or themicroenvironment? Mold could be catastrophic,but I’m rambling now.That’s my answer. So then Linda Ogle said, whatkind of plastic are you using? And she said, you may want toconsider the ability for air movement, which you covered. And then there was a discussionabout using leak detectors. So do you have any suggestionson using leak detectors or– Sarah Dunn suggested onecalled Lyric Wi-Fi Water Leak and Freeze Detector. I don’t really know much aboutthat, about the detectors. So I couldn’t really recommendanything specifically. It’s probably not a badidea to know that your water suppression system is leaking. That would be goodto know, obviously. Yeah. But I don’t have anyrecommendations per se. Debra Trupen says, “In yourongoing research, can you– will you also look atwood, i.e. furniture, and/or gilded and gessoedobjects and composite textiles? The short answer is maybe. And I hope so. So kind of the background inImage Permanence Institute, if you can guess from thename, when we were established, our main focus was imagepermanence– so looking at mainly photographicand printed materials and the sort of preservationof those objects.And we’ve since expandedto sort of books and paper and other printed materials,library and archive materials. But I definitely feel like–and we’ve had conversations about this as a group in ourlab, that we are interested, and we are kind of looking toexpand what kind of materials that we’re looking at. I will say that other instituteslook at these materials. So we kind of allhave our niches. We look at printedmaterials, and photographs, and books, and things like that. The Getty is doing alot of work on wood and actually looking at themechanical behavior of wood, like furniture. The SmithsonianConservation Institute has done a lot ofwork with paintings. And other people arelooking at textiles. But I think what we reallyneed to do is, as a lab, to look at what otherpeople have done, and see if there’s anygaps, or see if we can apply our research methodsand what we’re looking at to some of these objects. So we don’t have any plansin the immediate future. But kind of lookinginto the future, these are conversationsthat we’re having. But again, we don’twant to redo research that’s already been done. Maybe it’s just a matterof compiling the research. Rudolph Trakel says, we’readding thousands of new items to our Harvard stylemodule at this time. How would this– I think, how wouldour collections that have alreadybeen acclimated in the facility fora month or more– let’s see. There’s some words missing. If we test turning off the HVACunits overnight, et cetera. So if you’re addingmaterials and you have materials thatare acclimated, how would that be affectedby turning off the HVAC? Yeah, I get it.Yeah. Rudolf says be affected. That’s a really good question. You know, I’m not sure. I don’t know. If the– so we know that thissort of moisture diffusion, it’s going to takehowever long it takes, no matter how big that jump is. So it doesn’t reallymatter what the environment was where the collectionswere held previously. When you move them intothat new environment, it’s going to take how long it’sgoing to take for them to fully acclimate to this new space. So I guess itreally depends on– if those materials were ina really dry or really humid space, you would probablywant to bring them into an environment what wewould determine a preservation environment, somewherein that 30% to 55% range of relativehumidity and again with the same temperature.Temperature, like I said, doescontrol the moisture content. Temperature matters. And kind of let themchill there for a while before moving in with therest of the collection. That might be a consideration. I don’t know thatit would really matter that much, honestly. I don’t think– I don’t want to overthink it. I don’t know that it wouldreally harm the collection. There’s a theory which Ithink is a really valid theory by another researchscientist somewhere else that kind of has– it basically says withmechanical things, expansion and contraction, if yourcollection material has already seen 25% RH or hasalready seen 70% RH, if it’s already felt theextremes, when it feels those extremes again, you’re notgoing to do additional damage to the object. And I very muchbelieve that’s true.Everything we’ve done haspretty much pointed to that. So I don’t think you’re going toharm your object by putting it into an environment that’s kindof within these safe zones. Eventually, it’s going to havethe moisture that it needs. It’s going to be acclimatedto whatever it is. Don’t overthink it. I don’t think it’sthat big of a deal. But I’ll kind of addthat to my list of things to kind of checkand test for sure. I think it’s a good question. So yeah, I’ll kind of verify,but I’m not super worried. So I don’t know. I hope that helps. [? Claudia Rivers ?]says, “We have experience of this phenomenon, which isthings drying out and curling back, in El Paso withbooks loaned for exhibits. Since it’s reallydry here, some books pulled open so much that theydid not fit back in the box that they were shipped in.” And then Brad Bredehoftsaid, “You could– they need to acclimateto environmental change.” And Lissa asked, “Do you haveany suggestions for acclimating hygroscopic materials?” Sure.Sure I do. So the first thing is tovalidate yeah, I believe that. I got a– I contributed toa dictionary on photography. And when it was shippedto me, it was winter. And the whole coverof the book was bowed. And then I left iton my coffee table. And by spring, it hadtotally flattened out. And so yeah, thisis a real thing. The dimensions ofthe book will totally change, depending on whatthe environment is– and I know in a dryenvironment especially. What you would have seen in thatvideo is the books totally open up. They totally sort of comeopen as the humidity drops. There’s lots of ways thatyou can sort of acclimate to the environment again. You can create amicroenvironment with silica gel. You could really justget a plastic container, and put some silicagel in there, and kind of put them in there. Yes. So I mean someone says don’tshock them with the change. Again, with myresearch with my data, it’s not looking like it– that rate of change. I’m not sure howmuch it matters. There is– when it comesto stress and strain, basically what happens–if you remember, if anybody ever played with– I don’t remember. I forget his name. Remember that toy? Stretch Armstrong. Stretch Armstrong. And he had the big,old stretchy arms. If you yank the arms reallyfast, they’ll break off. But you had to sortof slowly pull them. And I think that’s probablywhat Brad is referring to. With mechanical change, ifyou pull something really hard and really fast, it breaks.Whereas if you pull it slowly,you kind of get that stretch. But one of thethings that we see is actually with a reallyslow, drawn-out change, you actually get a realignmentof the molecular structure. And so you actually get morepermanent damage sometimes with really, really slowstretching and changing. So again, part of this DICproject is to look at that and to kind of figure out,does the rate of change matter? Does the amountof change matter? And so far our rate of changehas actually been two hours.It’s been pretty quickly. And I’m not actuallyseeing any major damage to books or to anythingelse, to just pieces of paper or parchment, yet. So again, I don’t want tosay anything definitive because I’m still kind ofknee-deep into this project. I have a lot of analysisto do of the data. But yeah, I would just saycreate a microenvironment where you can bring it up.Conditioned silicagel is perfect. Some people usesaturated salt solutions. To me, they’re a hassle,and they’re messy. I like the silica gel. You can buy the conditionedsilica gel in a box. Make sure that you don’taccidentally recondition it. You have to keep it ina sealed bag, Mylar bag. But yeah. Amanda Shield says, “Howdo we implement and enforce these new standardsfor temperature and RH? Many institutions stillenforce the 70/50 rule.How do we spreadthis new standard to all museums andcollecting institutions?” Gosh, that’s a good question. This information is not new. This idea of steppingaway from 70/50 and having a moredynamic approach is something thatwe’ve actually been advocating for foralmost 30 years as well as other institutions. The Smithsonian alsoadvocates for it. The Getty also advocates for it. We’ve had full symposiums,international symposiums, held all over the place. There was– I thinkthere was one in Denmark. There was one held atthe Smithsonian in DC to show different institutions’research on this– just furtheremphasizing and sort of further proof of thepudding, if you will, that this dynamicapproach is fine. And it works. It’s almostfrustrating to kind of be this sort ofhandful of people sort of shouting into thevoid to say, no, really, you’re fine.And I just think itstarts with education, doing webinars like thiswhere we can show our research and showing proof. Don’t just take my word for it. Just show the dataand show the proof that a dynamic andsustainable approach is fine for your collection. So it always startswith education. And then I thinkwhat we need to do is we need to train the nextgeneration of professionals.So we need thiseducational message to reach our educatinginstitutions, our colleges or universities, sothat when we talk about environmental managementin our conservation programs, in our museum and libraryscience programs and archives programs, they’retalking dynamic. They’re not saying 70/50. 70/50 is easy. And that’s why we default to it. It’s easy. I don’t need to knowwhat my collection is. I don’t need to thinkabout it too hard. I can just do it. But the truth is we reallyhave to know our collections. We have to know whatthe materials are. We have to know how theyrespond to temperature. We need to know how theyrespond to relative humidity in order to make the best choicewe can for our collection. And 70 degrees isnot a good choice for most collection materials. It just isn’t.It’s far too warm. And thinking about dewpoints is also essential. So I guess that’s my answeris just education, education, education, webinars likethis, talking to others. And then when it comes toactually implementing it, you have to think about it. Think about yourgeographical location. Again, if you’re in thedesert or if you’re somewhere really humid, maybeshutting down entirely isn’t the best choice. But you can do setbacks. You can change the set points. Also think about yourbuilding envelope. Can your buildinghold a temperature and relative humidity fora long period of time? And these are thingsthat IPI can help you with with our consultation. A lot of institutionswrite grants. And part of the grant is tohave us come and consult. We’re not the only consultationplace that there is. So there’s definitelyother people. But you could havesomeone come and help you make these changes. And that’s kind of what sortof generally is advocated for.But otherwise, you could alsojust try it for a day or a week and see what happens. You’re not going to killyour collection probably in a day or a week. But I would be a little morecautious and more careful about it, generally speaking. That’s just me. I tend to be cautious. So yeah, I hope thatanswers the question. Katie Hall asks, “What’s youropinion of sealed microclimates for long-term storage,i.e., Marvelseal matted in place works? Aw, I love that question. And we have three minutesand three more questions. Thank you. My opinion is thesesealed packages, which are– what you’re sortof describing– they’re also called sealed packages– arereally intended for display and for travel. They often– again, theglazing is usually acrylic. And it’s not going to hold. It is permeable.And especially the cornersof the sealed packages, we get leaks. So your sealed package willhold for a period of time. How long, I’m not sure. But eventually, it’ll fail. And so you need tokeep checking it. You need to havemaybe a moisture indicator, one of those cobaltstrips, inside to check it. They’re very expensive to make. And they take up quadruple thespace of the object itself. So you might want to bereally selective of really sensitive materials ifyou’re that worried about it.This is actually a question onmy list of research questions. And I’m really hoping inthe next couple of years to write a grant to look atsealed packages more in depth and really to see howlong do they last. What formula– there’slots of ways to make these. Which one’s the best? So that’s sort ofearmarked for research. So I’m glad youasked that question because it kind of reinforcesmy need to ask these questions. [INAUDIBLE] says, “Whatif your collection is mixed paper, photo,furniture, textiles, metal? Does your restriction applyto mixed collections?” Yeah, absolutely, absolutely. But this is where knowinga collection comes in. You have to kind of lookat the information on each of these materials and decidewhat your limiting factor is. What’s your mostsensitive material? And design yourenvironment for that. So if you do have materialsthat really shouldn’t be frozen, you don’t want to get too cold. What you’ve listed are mostlyhygroscopic, except for metal. Metals we can set aside. If you have it’s nota composite object– it’s just metal–drier, the better.Metal does not like moisture. But all these other materialsneed to be above 30%. They need to be above 25%. They need to be at 30%to 55% relative humidity. So that might be– you might just want to erron the lower side of RH if you can. But again, even a little bitof this stepped RH control will significantlyimprove your bill and also reduce yourcarbon footprint. With that said, I wastold, well, people are mostly concerned aboutthe money, the HVAC bill. Nobody really caresabout the environment. But I totally disagree. I think people do careabout the environment. I think people do care thatnot only do we have rising HVAC bills, the amount of pollutantsthat we’re putting into the air by running our HVACsystems is significant. And so we can dowell by our planet as well as do wellby our collections. They’re not mutually exclusive. So with your mixedcollections, you might want to err on the sideof drier with the metals. But you can still havethis dynamic approach. That was my tangent. Sorry. All right. We have one more questionfrom Jessica Lewinsky.And she says, “If I have25 data loggers distributed in my galleries,what’s the best way to save the informationfor it to be accessible, and also to be able to reviewthe volume of datum I’m acquiring, and then beable to correlate it?” Yeah. So there are severalsoftware programs on the market thatallow you to download your data into the software. And then it’llspit out the graph. And then with most ofthese, you can actually compare the graphs. The only one I’m reallyknowledgeable about is eClimateNotebook becausethat’s our software. And so I’m just going to talkon that because I know more about it. So you can use any data logger. You can just downloadit into the program. It automatically spitsout all of the data. You can comparedifferent locations. You can compare allthe different loggers. You can also kindof adjust the scale.So you can look at ayear’s worth of data. You can look at aweek’s worth of data. You can look at a day’sworth of data, an hour. And it also has what we callpreservation metrics, which take the guesswork out. It tells you whenyou’re in trouble. It lets you know. Again, you always haveto know your collection. If you have a room that’s fullof metal, and it’s telling you it’s too dry, again you can– it’s thinking– our system’sthinking hygroscopic materials. So you have to have a littlebit of thought into it.But mostly it’sreally a good tool that really kind of helpsyou manage your data and manage your environment. And once you know whatyour environment is, when you can spit out awhole year’s worth of data, if your environmentis problematic, if you are hittingthose extremes, that’s when you could startlooking to grant funding to help you withyour HVAC system and try to getthings under control. So yeah, there are othersoftwares out there, software programs, that I’mjust not as knowledgeable about. But they exist. So please fillout the evaluation thank you Alice thankyou Mike everyone have wonderful holidays andwe will see you in 2008 so keep looking on the websiteto see what’s coming up.And that’s it.

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