So as you know in this week we are focusingon alternatives to plastics. So, this is week 7 this would be the last video, last-place modulefor this week 7 as you know every week we have 5 videos of nearly 30 minuteseach. So, this is the last video and as the topic for this week is focused on alternativesto plastic, the greener substance to plastic we are so in this last-place video and we I showedyou we gone over several a few examples of alternatives to plastic. So, will kind of a discuss a littlebit on that to its implementation of when this plastic alternative plastic will be terminated in the environmentwhat are the issues associated with that and then we will too look at how to quantifysomething is green, when I say light-green commodity or light-green plastic better to better for environmenthow to quantify that? And that is discussion will be done in this particular video andthen that will kind of conclude the content for week 7. So, tell us get started and lookat more detailed information, so we we were at this particular slide in the last towards the end of lastvideo we were looking at any of these bio plastic commodities, when they will be disposedinto the environment after it’s use like traditional plastic as well. So, there are different waysyou can do it, virtually it is likely to be progressed of your borough solid waste stream. So, when you look at these waste product coming out you will have you will have either itif you do not accumulate it properly it is likely to be littered. If you muster it and take itto a landfill or a dump back if you is not rally then, if it gets into the surfacewater it may end up finally, to the sea, if you do the recycling you may go for thermalor feedstock recycling one of the purposes of it if it gets into our organization because of the micro plasticsgetting into our ocean or aura or salt which we talked about earlier in the last week itcan get accepted into the body as well. Do nothing in terms of littering also it canbreakdown in the anchor if it travels anaerobic digestion biogas flora, debris mode energyplant you can go for industrial composter or domestic composter. So, these two togetheris basically composting, consume to power as a incineration, trash to energy from a biologicalpoint of use, so this is where these can be end up. And since these are biodegradablethey will they will get most of it will like a end up converted to CO 2 methane and thoseother gas gaseous concoctions which can be used which can be used as a power root mostlike a methane can be used as a energy source.But we is not miss these gases to be justgone into the environment like that because these gases likewise have a negative environmentalimpact, then there dark-green residence gases, so they establish difficulty in terms of dark-green room gasimpact. So, major dumping environments we talked about composting equipment, anaerobicdigestion, you can go to the waste water treatment plant, it can go to plastic recyclers, landfilldump line-ups, marine and fresh environments or general open environment as later whichwe just talked about.So, this is just a kind of again summary of this of the previous slither. So, in terms of emerging application areas it has implemented in countless; many different areaslike this is has implemented in coated newspaper, agricultural mulch, shopping bags, foodwaste film, customer box, landfill move movie, bait, bags fishing row, silagewrap, torso bags and coffin liners, nappy endorse expanse, various hygienic commodities, cling wrap.So, as you discovered there are several several employment is there and based on all the illustrations thatwe have seen in this particular week many of those were already we have this bio plasticscoming into those lotions. So, from all these after from all these applications oneit’s schism it will come to the disposal stream. And there are some modifications arealso happening in terms of improving biodegradability of for certain environment. Metallizationcould require some obstacle owneds, they are adding some silicon oxide, carbon dioxide.Increase thermal conductivity based on usage, specialized enzyme can enhance production, cost effective as petrochemical increase in price again if it’s petrol rate goes up itbecomes sometimes it becomes cost effective if the petrol price goes down these productdoes not or not cost effective, so that is always a problem.So, there are always someadverse effect as well pollution in spray consume due to high BOD because now you havebiodegradable plastic. So, if degrade once from the higher molecular organics, it becomesto lower molecular organics to be BOD counts goes up. And movement of plastic degradationsuch as residual pigment, this run off leachate from tract pack compost facilities that cancontaminate ground water surface water. And from to its implementation of biodegradable plastic inthe naval environment if it’s 100 percent biodegradable if most of it is biodegradableit is good, but if it is only partially biodegradable or demo gradual decline again that causestrauma and death of marine species as well. So, that is that is not that area as wellI said earlier, since now there are very few produces out there now which is 100 percentbiodegradable.Since there are mostly blended commodities, so this coalesced commodities createslike a half degradability half no degradable and they all is still become an issue formarine environment. So, and then some other possible increase in incidence of litteringbecause one parties considered that oh this is biodegradable even if I time throw it away on the side ofthe road it will get decomposed in few daytimes of few, but many times that is not true.Even if it’s biodegradable it needs a composting facility, it needs an anaerobic digestionfacility to degrade if you really throw it away it may not it will take very very long timeto degrade.And then you compost which is has this biodegradable plastic, if it’s ifthey have some contamination or they have a it’s blended with traditional plastic withcertain colours and other trash which may create, who have been able to some heavy metal, who have been able to sure-fire organics. And then in all such cases they soil and[ crope/ crop] cropgets exposed to it from those compost because of additives and modifiers like coupling workers, plasticizers, fillers, catalysts, stains, stains all those things which is there in the plasticbecause it is needed for it’s use.But when you make like compost out of that and thesechemicals continue to exist and that gets bio accumulated in the harvest in and then it maylead to adverse health impact as well. So, those those are issues associated with thisplastic biodegradable plastic waste management. So, being said that we wanted to too discussa little bit, I wanted to have a little bit of discussion in this particular segment onwhen we say something is green. How do you really quantify that? So, because just sayingsomething light-green is like ok this is greener than that ok may be, but how much, what isthe numbers? because as an technologist or a scientist or in general like if you go to a any legallegal plaza as well they always miss some evidence.So, what is the evidence that thisis green? Yes your raw materials are seems to be better based on our past know, we think that your product should be greener, but how much greener? Because anything newwhen we do “were having” new treats coming, every process as their own environmental paw printas well. So, this whole process whole concept of quantifying the greening of certain productprocess is what is known as this LCA Life Cycle Analysis , which is LCA the full formis the Life Cycle Analysis. Now, what is this life cycle analysis conveys? You are lookingat from cradle to grave, sometime even from cradle to cradle , now we will explain thatin a minute.Cradle to grave conveys any make process is from the very beginning cradleis jula in Hindi; that entails, one babe is born you introduced it in birthplace and grave is whensomebody dies you positioned it grave because this concept has come from the Western world wherethey use the grave a lot, so that is where it’s it is coming from. So, it is a cradleto grave from the very beginning to the end. Now that is the and you look at the wholeenvironmental impact associated with different things that is happening there. So, when yougo for this LCA you have to look at the material process, you have to find out ok what shouldbe your functional, what is advisable to your plan borderline? And to do all that there is theISO methodology and this cartoon that is the diagram that you encounter right above is on thisis based on the ISO method, for LCA the for which is you start with goal and scope definition.You find out what is the goal of doing LCA, what is the scope you do a stock-take analysisto find out, what are all the inventory like energy information in secretes out? So, collectlots and lots of data and then you do the impact analysis like after doing that, whatwhat does it symbolize? And looking after for blow you can make sense out of this LCAand then you take this for the produce better, so process improvement and all that.So, willdiscuss it little bit, so that even for a bio plastic point of view a whenever we areproposing that ok will supplant this traditional plastic with this bio plastic concoction , nowhow much real environmental interest we are getting. So, that is always very importantto justify to quantify. Same like many numerous educational campuses numerous municipals in Indiaare banning this single implementation plastic and they are asking a replacement. So, based on thereplacement that is coming into the market that will decide whether we have really madea significant environmental welfare or it is more or less only a incremental benefitwith some token is some happening there. So, that is very very important. Similar say forexample, I am talking to you sitting in IIT Kharagpur campus, in our campus we have thereis a huge drive happened and right now if you go to the market you is not interpret the singleuse plastic within IIT Kharagpur market. You go outside still because Bengal has not bannedsingle use plastic say you picture those registering up in the grocery stores or in when you gofor vegetables or bread and all those, but within the campus single use plastic has beenbanned and. So, and there are some alternatives which is come up some cloth pockets have comeup some of those cloth bags too have a very thin layer of plastic inside. So, those thoseneeds to be studied with those needs to be studied to find out is it truly a environmentalbenefit, which it seems to be and, but what is how much, what is the quantification ofthat? Because there is lot of resources also went into making this process making thissingle band effective. So, that also requires quantity of energy lot of. So, whether it’s reallygoing to give us the potential benefits and how much assistance? So, those things can be quantifiedusing this LCA process.So, will discuss like a little bit in the backdrop of this LCAprocess the detailed is there are various you tube videos there was a course on lifecycleanalysis on this on this NPTEL platform, which is happened two years ago it was redone againlast year and I hope it will again probably be run in the coming future. But this isjust a small discussion on that for us to put in prospective for what does it mea? So, in terms of lifecycle inventory has you attended for the ISO methodology there is an input, there is an output for every process that you do for which you are making a new bioplastic. So, what are the input goes into making those bio plastic? Here this terminologythese is this stuff is just for example, “theyre not” do not think that this is what isneeded for bio plastic, this is just a illustration example now and there will be certain emissionscoming out.So, what we do is we try to quantify take all the input, take all the output andthen try to quantify what is the impact coming out of it? And many times for terribly very smallproduct also you can have hundreds and hundreds of different elementary pours in terms ofinput and output which does very hard to interpret. Brain cannot consider more than 7 independentparameter at a one time, so what we do? We “ve been trying to” neglect something which is less than0. 1 percent. So, so that perform realise start our life little bit simpler. So, that is thatis that is done to to do that. And with all these data that you rectified with the inventoryyou have for for spawning something you need piles and lots of data. So, data you essentiallyis coming from a central database these days and that central database is coming from ecoinventdot org and that is where it’s data is coming and this is from a different area agricultureand energy supply, basic substance tote, metals creation, some plastic paper boatall those things are there.So, all these data data are principally say for what how much? What is the input and production that you identified in the previous slide say for doing 1 k g1 1 k g of like 1 rhythm cube of concrete or 1 this particular this ego or even this marker, how much if I what is the unit process? What are the different information here? Plasticsome may be a circuit board, sometimes it is there some depends if it directs as a slightchanger probably it has some sort of relay or something and so that may have some circuitboard.So, all those things we need to look at and all the different parameter all thedifferent components we need to look at and how they came and how much it may be necessary to makethose as per the unit process and that part process data comes from all these differentdatabases which is already has been developed. And these are these databases initiallywhen it developed was mostly European located, but now we are getting Indian based databasescoming in as well. So, that is also becoming we will have more and more data on Indianbase, so to do the LCA in India we can use Indian located data, we do not have to relyon European data to do that. So, formerly you have this elementary flow which you got allthe data you look at based on the emissions, what are the impact in different categories? Again do not worry too much about this lists and all that this is not what we are goingto quiz you or ask you questions in the final exam because this is something which is muchbroader topic just wanted to give you a snap shot, so that you get an idea that wheneverwe say something greener we have to really quantify that.If you are really interestedto learn more about how this LCA and sustainable engineering and all that, you can look atthe YouTube videos on like if you just go on YouTube and say lifecycle analysis withmy figure you will find all those NPTEL videos showing up there. So, but these are the differentimpact categories human toxicity respiratory ionizing or ozone layer, photochemical andall that. And then from the effects lists you can kind of club them into human health, ecosystem impact, climate change impact and resource depletion. So, that is becomesyour kind of damage categories in terms of what will happen with all these emissionsand those releases are coming up part of the process of a spawning those bio plasticfor example, here or it could be also part of the raw material which you are used tomake those bio plastic or even the traditional plastic if you want to do a comprehension.So, once we have the LCI result we have these which is something we realise was the midpoint different impactcategories, then we have a endpoint which was also you verified that respiratory level, extensionspecies, reduced space.So, this is how we various kinds of a time that environmental mechanismwe try to come up with the what is the potential impact to the environment. And then when itwe have we cannot really make these kind of information and go to our policy makers toour chairwomen and present to them because it gets to technological we can, so what we do wetry to come up with some simplification of that. And that simplification require certaininterpretation, so certain waiting because if you have these three say impact categoriesafter from this midpoint categories. Now, when we try to look at the impact should wetake 1 third 1 third, are we going to do 1 third 1 third of each one of them or are wegoing to take introduced a different like 40 percentage may be 30; 30 or 60, 20; 20 that depends onwhere you are.Say in in your region if this certain ecosystem or resources reduction isof higher into higher kind of concern you will use a different weightage, if it’s aequal you can use equal weightage to, but if you think that human health is what isthe major concern that will get the most weightage. So, that is as a as a practitioner that isyour call and that is what you come up with in terms of how to how to do those like interpretation.So, you start with your ICI result come up get all the emissions number, from emissionsnumber you come up with this midpoint like a affect lists, then you make that amidpoint impact to come up with the endpoint impact categories and formerly you have the endpointimpact categories you have to use sure-fire weightage point to frame everything togetherand come up with an interpretation.So, that is what is it’s it’s done, so it’s to comeup with some concluding some impression out of that. So, again from if you look at from the beginningyou get all the input and production for the process, you go to the impact categories and from impactcategories you get into the damage lists and you eventually, you come up with the singlescore. And this single tally is very similar to what you appreciate for spray character indicator orair excellence index or even for Bombay stock exchange index. So, they have a single scoreand that is score is used to present a certain information.So, because whenever the sensexis going up we say that market is doing good; busines is doing good that does not mean thateach and every company for which it helps it impacts on smells they are doing good somecompanies are doing good, some companionships might be doing bad. Similarly, when sensex goesdown same route statement some may have gone bad, some is likely to be; some may have good performedbadly, but some is likely to be accomplished good as well, but this single value helps us to makeit easier to understand how the economy is if you based on, if you look at stock exchangeas one of the indicator for fiscal recital that also itself is debatable will not gothere we will leave it for our fiscals professors to do that but it, but that is that is theother way to look at.Similarly breath aspect indicator every time during this winter or duringcertain time you heat you get the news that oh aura caliber in this area is getting badbecause air quality number has moved above 400 above 450 , now it is in danger level.Now what is this 450 400? The they are combinations of different constants which has given thatnumber. Similarly, sea excellence index is there, so same concept is you take allthese impact categories and employed them in a in a single compose because when you go andtalk to a regulator you say that ok I have a traditional plastic which has that is scoreof this much, in terms of environmental accomplishment I have this bio plastic which has a numberof this much in terms of informal form operation. So, bio plastic is better and it is betterby this fraction or this numeral by this time or this percentage.So, that passes a quantificationnumber becomes easy for regulators or commanders and secretaries executives to understand whatwe are trying to say. You can be expert in LCA and you come up with a very beautifulgraphs, but then it becomes too technically technical and then people cannot really understand.So, you always in your presentations you always have to see who your publics and then basedon the public you tell your presentation and that is true for all the presentationthat you will take in your life, you are able to ever be informed about or who the public are andyou try to tell it based on the audience. So, that is similarly now when you go fora LCA audience to for our ministers or regulators another locates we have to make sure, thatit has to be scientifically sound, but not more technological it should not people shouldnot get lost on what is happening here. So, so this whole concept of quantifying greenit’s make it is very very important conception and this is the whole the concept of LCA, some of you may have heard about EIA which is the Environmental Impact Assessment.So, this LCA is kind of a much broader version of EIA; EIA often we look at localized influence, in LCA we looking at world-wide repercussion. And were we are trying to capture all the possibleimpact that is happening from the process and we go from cradle from the very beginningto grave which is to the very end, so, that is the whole concept of lifecycle analysis.So, in terms of lifecycle analysis say, in terms of the plastic industries we can usethis first of all you need to come up with why you need to do LCA? What is the contrive? What is the objective, which employment exactly what we how you will going to use the results howit will be reported which is able to do the stuff? And the you encroach a interface with yourorganization for say plastic manufacturing and formerly you have you can use it for eco motif, making a better design you can come up with a strategy product declaration, that is alsoimportant as I said earlier that people are ready to buy greener product if it is reallygreen.So, you can start so make testimony, but doing at the LCI kind of exercise andyou evidence like a summing-up diagram as a some sort of flair or whatever you do in terms of yourmarketing, where you see that this is actually actually is greener because we have done itusing a you have done the quantification of of this particular product as compared tothe traditional produce. And you can use it for bench marking, you can use it for lifecycle expenditure, so there are different application.So, once it’s done that LCA experts can workwith the designers of produces, can work with the make overseers, can work withenvironment management and safety professionals and then look at the whole stuff and comeup with a better product design. And this the whole process helps us to quantify thereal environmental help and to come up with a better environmental product. So, inthis week when we were trying to talk about the greener alternatives, bio located alternativesto traditional plastic, at some part of hour we have to do this kind of exercise and tocome up with whether it’s really dark-green whether and how much lettuce the product is. So, thatis that is kind of important thing to do. So, with that we are kind of towards the end ofthis particular weeks is substance. So, which is something we visualized so far is over all plastic bio plastichas generally more expensive than regular plastic, but there are variety of uses andbenefits if you look at the whole lifecycle this plastics.So that is why the lifecycleanalysis is important because traditional plastic may be cheaper, but they have a veryhuge environmental onu, gigantic environmental negative effect and, but in this bio plasticmay be expensive to start with, but when you look at from a lifecycle perspective, sincethe from the end of life in terms of managing it is a waste is will be much simpler, itmay out highway you we may get a better better better decision. So, so any anything we shouldnot just look at in a silos we should have a look at in a systems prospective. So, wereyou things the things in a systems way rather than looking precisely percentage by personas, so if youhave a huge, if you have a unit process. So, each and every individual unit is important, but the whole legions together, the whole system is very very important as well that is calledsystems approach.Then bio plastic will cut down the borough solid trash because itmostly biodegradable, so it non non biodegradable garbage will be reduced and if we if we takethat and finagle it properly, we can reduce the lettuce house gas impact it is; it is aenvironmental friendly. How much friendly? You can do LCA and find out and that is whatI would encourage some of you who wants to do your jobs and other material you shoulddo those kind of projects. A look at all these variety of environment plastic alternativesthat are coming in and try to get their process information and do do a immediate lifecycle analysison it.There are various software’s out out there which you can download and use it forfree, for certain daytimes, so you can use it for student campaigns and that is allowed.Then with developing technologies we it has information and communication technologies developing, the productswill improve and the cost will also get competitive in the market. And to and finally, we needto quantify the environmental benefit because just saying something is greener is not goodenough, we have to quantify, we have to show how dark-green it is and that can be done usingthe tool of LCA which we just talked about.So, over all this particular week our focuswas on greener material, better alternative fabric and look at what are coming up inthe market, what are the different types of material coming in the market and we alsolooked at how to really distinguish between greener material versus non greener materialhow to avoid doing the green clean. So, that is that is also terribly very important.So, with that thank you for this attending all these videos and I hope you are enjoyingthe course the 7th this is the last video for week 7. So, next will move into week 8which will which have a nice transition, we just talked about lifecycle analysis and thiswhole plans perspective, in the coming week will talk about a abstraction which is a brandnew perception which is applied in waste management sector in general that is called the circulareconomy concept where and we will talk about that what is circular economy and all thatwhich will be interesting and the authorities concerned will too be seen to what extent the plastic the enterprises and the plasticwaste fits into this whole circular economy a discussion. So, again do not forget to takeyour quiz one time and you should take all week quiz although I know you are being allowedto skip few of them, but we will take I fantasize 6 out of best; best 6 out of 8 if I remembercorrectly.So, that is , but and if you; if you should if you I think you must have registeredfor the exam because that is that is also important, that is always better to get thecertificate because if you are put all these effort and rest and the exam reward isnot that too much either “its just” I meditate 1200 or 13 1300 rupees. So, with that thankyou again and I will see you in the next week content, which will be on circular economyand this whole plastics around the circular economy. Thanks take care ..