Closing the Loop (Full Film) – English with Multi-Language Subtitles

If we do not go around everything ends for the planet. It all ends for society. -We have no other way. It is of great importance for our survival. Unless we really change our mindset I think the world will end. We are passing through a world of 7 billion people on a planet of 9 billion people. The way we exist now on Earth, the biosphere is run by humans who are parasites. If you look at the large amount of plastic pollution that collects in the ocean, the plastic that is starting to collect to the fish we consume, There is not much left, so we have to protect what we have, and we have to use it efficiently. It is not utopia, it is necessary. -I am afraid that my generation will be the first generation in the world to leave my children and grandchildren in a world they may never be able to fix. Whether it takes 20 years, 50 years, or 100 years, breach of these boundaries is inevitable. Our resources will be depleted, or the pollution will worsen so much as much as it does our health, and we will begin to feel the effect as human beings. I think if we continue with the economy in a straight line, we are, if we were to use a metaphor, burnt. CLOSING THE CIRCLE Is it too late? I am often asked this question when I speak at Cambridge University or elsewhere, and sometimes I have to answer like that. If I look at science, and if I look at trends and facts It’s very difficult not to be pessimistic. It’s very hard not to say that we are heading towards the abyss, walking at 160 Km / h. But if I see that speed and the degree of change that is taking place, I look at the people who are dealing with these problems, the technological advances we are currently seeing, It’s very difficult not to be optimistic. Travel to see the economy in the form of a circle I started it through my work on sustainability, but what I realized after years of working as a consultant to multinational companies around the world, in terms of sustainability, is that if we do not solve this problem, everything else we do, no matter how good the intention is, surely the end will be bad. No one will stop growing, no one will stop trying to grow, be it country or business. Or consumer. So the only way to fix this problem is making it in the shape of a circle So I started thinking. I work with sustainability, I give lectures, I advise, but that just is not enough. The only thing that suffices It is the redesign of the industrial system. A new industrial revolution, in the full sense of the word, that would close the circle. This is no longer a dream, it is no longer a fantasy. We are not talking about a utopia. We’re talking about something that’s happening now, and if others could follow this example we would change the world forever. So I’m very excited to visit companies that are becoming pioneers in this area. As not only are they showing that it is possible, but they are already doing it. We do not need new technologies. They already exist. What we need is a new way of thinking. And these companies show that we can create a new model, that will instantly change the world, from today. VACANCIES I think it is the most sparkling period. Experiments are being done all over the world in terms of the social space of the enterprise, clean technology space, integrated reporting space, economy in the form of a circle and so on. It is at this turn of 180 degrees, almost historically, expects the biggest mess, insecurity, anger, the feeling of loss, the existential challenge. I think that is exactly what we are seeing at these moments. In a way the question that arises for sustainable industry It is’ We can project a vision of the future that would really attract people, making them want to be a part of it? ‘ I think we can, we just have to unite in a completely different way. This is a big challenge, a really big challenge, but I think this is the perfect time for this. We have a great opportunity to move forward, making local governments, making cities, municipalities, key actors in this process. I think one of the things that allows me to be positive It’s my luck to experience it the transition of South Africa to democracy. What I saw was a system where people have resisted change for decades. Racial segregation has been in place for 40 years. But when change did start to happen, when the climax was reached, this happened very quickly. So I really believe that change can happen positively, very quickly. CHANGE IN THE CIRCUIT What is ‘Thinking About’? ‘ Is the change of perspective, shifting awareness from straight-line thinking, ‘Take, do, spend’, in circular thinking, how the waste instead of being dumped somewhere turning into pollution another product may well be made, getting back into the process. The economy in the form of a circle is an economic system which is renewed through its design. Basically what we try to do It is to encourage our partners to leave the economy in a straight line, where we take, produce, throw away or turn into waste, in ‘Get-Produce, Get-Produce’ This further improves the resources that exist in the system, to reduce the need to extract other resources, from a certain source in essence. Yes, recycling is a big part of it, but so is renovation, reuse, separation, elimination of waste, closing the circle to the resources that are already part of the system. I think the circular economy takes waste out of the way. Makes them look like something really sad. Suddenly, if you can buy a pair of swimsuits produced with discarded fishing nets this would be a great story. Since you are basically helping to clean up the ocean, swimming in it at the same time. I tend to think that the circular economy embodies the best opportunity for us to be able to consume quietly maintaining the current lifestyle. The other way would be to return to the dark age, and nobody wants that. I think circular economy is entirely related to co-creation, with cooperation, with bringing all innovations of knowledge in a single chain, and being responsible for what you are doing and creating. Close the Circle Perfect circular economy It is where nothing is thrown away, where everything produced is recycled, re-introduced to economic activity. We get to the point where whenever an engineer or designer design a product, will feel the impetus also develop a recycling plan. I think what many people today call it ‘Rreth’ is generally the best waste management. It is not a basic way of thinking for the production of something from the beginning, which may be in the form of a circle, ensuring that the buyer will benefit from its use, and the real benefit of reusing it, and her return to us. So I think the challenge is really meeting the needs of the buyer. We can not be satisfied until tens of thousands of companies, serving hundreds of thousands of buyers, they are not really functioning in circuit form. How long does it remain in the laboratory and in exploration we are fighting as much as we can.The world around us is moving fast, in terms of the climate crisis, the resource crisis, it’s not enough to deal with patches over the next decade, we need a delivery rate, fast even. Landing, Reuse, Recycling, Renewal, Restructuring landing Dr. Wayne Viser visits the Interface, a carpet manufacturing company which aims to reduce to zero the impact on the environment through a strategy they call ‘Mission Zero’. Netherlands Would you say that what you are doing here is somewhat revolutionary? I would say it is definitely revolutionary, after we radically changed the way we do business. We are moving from the ‘Take, Do, Throw’ model in a completely circular pattern. Marking the complete elimination of the impact. Complete Impact Elimination by 2020. This is very ambitious. -It is very ambitious, and with today’s capabilities, with today’s technologies, you can’t even imagine being able to hold on. So this really ambitious mission that Ray gave us forced us to follow new paths, which is really sparking. Reducing carbon levels in Europe has now reached 95%, with renewable energy at 95%. We use very little water in our processes. We have no waste going to collection points. Already more than 50% of our gross material recycled or processed biologically. Our challenge is to reach 100% by 2020. Innovation and sustainability are closely linked in this company. In fact the man in charge of global sustainability, He is the same person in charge of innovation. So the idea is that every innovation we bring into the business must serve sustainability. Our specialists devised a carpet tile with half of the yarn we use for them. Using half of the material greatly reduces the impact of the carpet tile on the environment. But at the same time they created a whole new look, as the plate contains almost no yarn, it is too thin, while creating a whole new market for us. Especially in Scandinavia and Southern Europe, where they like solid floors. Waste from other industries carries a variety of possibilities. If other industries are not so smart enough to recycle their waste, we will see which residue is of interest to us. For example, we will look at fishing nets, we will assemble the nets to produce nylon, We will look at the laminated glass, to get the polyvinyl out of there, using it as a rubber substitute. We are considering many ideas for auxiliary materials. The idea is that your processes are so resilient so that the waste can be used in different ways. I think in the old industry the model was building efficient machinery for just one raw material. The new model aims to build machinery which are probably less efficient, but can process more gross material. Here we are in the cutting process. Tell me what is going on here. Here we have the cutting with ultrasonic technology, which is second to none in the industry. The beauty is that it waits 24 times with one stroke. Consequently there is no residue. It is ultrasonic, highly accurate. Leaves very little residue on the sides. So it brings you closer to the complete elimination of waste. We are achieving this. -Well then. Let’s take a look at the cut. The only thing left are these side straps. There are straps on each side. -Good. It’s really impressive. They are very thin. Very few resources are used, there is very little waste. How does the process end now? The other process is to put the tiles in the box. Okay, let’s take a look. Here the process seems to end. -This is the final stage. Carpet tiles are packed here. -OK. And are these boxes sent to satisfied customers in Europe? In the Middle East and Africa. -Good. This is the production complex that serves the whole of that region. How many carpets … What volume does the production have here? About 14 million square meters per year. Which corresponds to about 60,000 meters per day. There are a lot of carpets, and what we hope, with the complete disappearance of waste, It is to make the world more stable through selling more carpets from you. We too hope to reach this point. Well, thank you very much for making this visit possible for us. Thank you. We hope you enjoy the ‘Mission Zero’ We are following your progress, and we are supporting you all the time. Excellent, thank you. -Well then. Mission Zero is not just about production. The interface follows its impact through the innovative ‘Get Back’ scheme. There are three possibilities for reusing carpets If the carpet is still in good condition can be washed and resold as used carpet. If selling again is impossible carpet tiles are inserted into a machine separating the back from the fibers. The materials are then renewed to produce a new carpet. If the carpets taken back can no longer be used in production burn to produce energy. What would you say to other companies? who will want to follow this revolutionary path, who will want to be a part of it of what is really the Next Industrial Revolution? What are some of the lessons you have learned, that you can forward? Companies that want to follow this revolutionary path I would tell you it starts with your people, in company. If you make people trust, if they understand that something needs to change, then become ambassadors working with your clients, working with your supply network. It starts with the birth of vision in the minds of leaders and administration, and supporting its implementation. I wish you good luck. Thank you for the leadership. I very much hope to see it fully implemented this new industrial model. To have a role in such a revolution is really incendiary, really irritating, it really adds something to the interface. That’s true for me, It is true for all our employees. Miracles.Thank you. -Thank you very much. THE HOUSE OF AWARENESS Dr. Weiss travels to the ‘Bota-Barlo’ plant in South Africa, where equipment for excavators is being reproduced. Reuse Bota-Barlo South Africa A complex of such … You think well when you decide to invest in something like this. Think beyond the present, thinks about 20, 40, maybe the next 100 years. Although we may have invested a lot income derived, not only from Bota-Barlo, yes from all over the country, from all over the world, they are innumerable. Give us an idea of what we have here in terms of the degree of activity. This complex covers an area of 30,000 square meters. 20,000 square meters are used for the reconstruction of the elements, while the remaining 10,000 meters are used as warehouses OK. Explain the process to me a little. What are the steps to follow when the elements arrive? What happens? When the element comes here we decompose it completely. We check it, determine which part needs to be replaced, which can be renewed by being reused. The parts are then subjected to a cleaning process renewal and then reunite. Once reassembled the element will be tested, will be painted, and is ready to be returned to the machinery as if he were young. We manage to reduce the costs of doing business through reproduction, as we manage to give to customers elements with one tenth of the price of the new element. Reproduction also reduces the weight of raw materials, like iron and steel ores. What we do not reuse we can send to you for recycling. So this process seems to be replacing buying a new part every time something breaks. This is the essence of reproduction. I think this brings great benefits. Without discussion. The benefits may be, depending on the element, between 20% for a certain element after demolition, up to a savings of 60% from the price of the new item. So the benefit is pretty big. Can the government play a role in supporting such initiatives? There is a lot of room for this. The government should play a regulatory role. One of the ways I can do this It’s tax cuts for complexes like this. But it can also be provided to have an adequate supply of skills so that we can continue to bring in people and train them. So you definitely have economic benefits from what we call reproduction, but of course there are also environmental benefits. Iron is used again. The whole world is facing a shortage of iron or steel, so we reuse the steel, and also clean some from the water remaining in the treatment complex, and reuse that water for the purification process. What are some of the things you think he has overcome? ‘Bota-Balo’, which serve as a lesson for other industries, Would you advise them to follow the path of circular economy? I think maybe it would be … ‘Thinking beyond profit’. If we do not take care of the environment, none of us will exist. If we do not take care of the environment there will be none of us left in the years to come. The generations to come will blame us. So we have a responsibility, each of us, to do osmos to reduce the impact of our economic activities to the environment. So let’s look a little further than today. Also when we become sustainable we eliminate the costs of doing business. We need to reinvest profits to make sure we become sustainable over the next few years. I hope my children, and their grandchildren, when I am no more, will say ‘You know, we had a group of people who were far-sighted enough to secure economic activities of their companies, reduce the negative impact on the environment. Dr. Weisser leaves for Newmegen, the Netherlands, to talk to innovative minds, Dutch Awareness, an EU-backed company, which aims to turn the clothing economy into a circle. I was a stylist, and there came a moment when we went to Ethiopia. We saw that the ground was covered with clothes At that moment I said ‘Okay, I have to take responsibility, I have to do it another way ‘. The Industrial Revolution began with textiles, so we are declaring Well, we come from textiles. We are starting a new revolution with textiles. We have to show that a raw material can be produced, that can be recycled 8 times. We need to show that we can bring it to market. We must show that we can follow and trace it to do a life cycle analysis. We had to show that there are business opportunities, new business models. We are showing this, with contracts based on submission. What is happening here is something impressive. You will see all the novelties, you will see all the outfits, partnership and love hope. One of our novelties, costumes, was the joint creation of a new brand, ‘Vishe-Kudo’. We styled the costumes for them, the coats they used. They are very young and are rapidly entering the market. Making having a circular product extremely attractive. It is impressive. Dr. Weisser tries on the costume which makes having a circular product extremely attractive. The feeling is great. The presentation is excellent. Isn’t this one of the worries to bother? If you choose a costume that does not cost much, or is it recyclable, sacrificing quality? It is polyester.Anyway, if you look at polyester that we can produce is not what it once was. Take for example when choosing sportswear. If you wear tracksuits, sports blouses, they are 100% polyester. If you look at the durability this material is much stronger. Consequently it will be worn longer than a cloth suit for example. So the technical lifespan of the goods is many times greater. It’s very different from what we sometimes call it ‘Fast fashion’, right? – I would say that it is the opposite. It is definitely the opposite. After all if you see ‘Quick Mode’ it has several columns It should be cheap, easily affordable, that they can buy it, be in large quantities, has a shorter lifespan, so people throw it away quickly, also buying a new one, as well as quickly going out of fashion. All of these elements require completion a large number of sources, fossil fuel, to keep the system afloat. Yes, it is the opposite. How many times could this costume be recycled? Turning into a thread, and then back into the costume? 8 times. The quality we demand from this cloth makes it possible to use it again, 8 times, in accordance with our standards. -Impressive. So if this costume lasts me 5 years, 5 years multiplied by 8 times, make 40 years of efficient use. We use the source once, without creating residue on the other side, over a period of 40 years. The costume must be worked with a special cloth, to be recyclable Materials for ‘Vishe-Kudo’ circular costumes, conceived and tested at the Institute of Applied Polymer Innovations. Emen, The Netherlands We are at the heart of your process. Tell me what is going on here. We are now in the process of melting and mixing, as you can see here. Polymer plugs are thrown into this machine which will turn them into polyethylene yarn. So keep the machine running and the plugs melt and come out in the form of filaments, as you call them, what is a filament? How big is it? How do you use it? The yarn consists of several hundred strands. A thread has a diameter of about 5 to 29 micrometers. Human hair is approximately 80 micrometers, therefore it is many times smaller than human hair. So somewhere between a quarter and 1/10 of a human hair. What makes something more or less recyclable? when we talk about this kind of yarn? A clean stream of steam is essential to the process. If the steam stream carries a lot of pollution you can not get the thread or thread. So does the paint, if you do not take care of the whole process, it is possible that the colors we add to the yarn will make it less recyclable.-Yes. That’s right. -So I think it is very important having a life cycle mentality. It’s easier for you to reach the end, if you thought about it in the beginning. If you really think from the beginning how to master the process this will help you at the end of the process. Then of course you have to try mechanical properties of the material. Of course you aim to encounter the same parameters as raw material. So what we do for example is to test the strength of the thread. This is very important, as you are saying that the fact that it is recyclable does not mean that it is less qualitative. It is subject to the same tests as any other thread. Exactly. This is the big challenge when recyclable material is used. The challenge is to meet the same standards the same parameters as those of the raw material. But you are finding that it is possible to achieve. Yes, I’m sure of that. Dr. Weisser visits Beker Tushe, a textile factory in Aachen, Germany, where the polymer fibers are converted into recyclable coha. We are in front of the weaving department. Here we can produce about 5-6 million meters per year. One loom produces about 100-150 meters per day. Depending on the style and piece. The devices we see behind our backs … They need other equipment if you produce recyclable yarn and clothing? No, the machinery is always the same. Using the same machinery, but we must use the right material. Here we come to the final result, after an 8-week production. Here we see the finished piece ‘Infiniti’. This is not an ordinary cloth. What is coha ‘Infiniti? ‘ Coha ‘Infiniti’ is 100% polyester. It is recyclable, and has multiple control functions. So it is a new piece, with very high quality. Good. -Newly created. -You created this piece in collaboration with ‘Dutch Awareness’. Yes. Especially for their costumes. How long did this collaboration last? -We worked for more than 18 months for this. Through this piece you become part of sustainability Yes. -… of the revolution of the economy in the form of a county. How does this make you feel? This is your company. Na bn krenar, na bn vrtet krenar. After a lot of work, and all my people worked long hours for this quality. We are now pleased to have the final product in our hands. In addition to the production of circular costumes ‘Dutch Awareness’ collaborated with clothing manufacturer ‘Tricorp’ to produce workwear and uniforms with recyclable material. I think it’s a big step, as we are used to thinking in a straight line. Produce, sell, wear, stop, throw away! Now we have to go get it back to the places where we produce it. This is another way of thinking, not only in the field of clothing, but I think of all kinds of industries. There must also be supply and demand. We need customers who say ‘We want to buy this’. And we’re not afraid to pay a little more maybe, for the same quality. This is what we need. One such client is Dura Vimer, one of the largest construction companies in the Netherlands. Dura Vimer not only wears employees with recyclable material, but also collaborates with ‘Dutch Awareness’ to turn textile waste into building material. Why did you choose the option of recyclable clothing? for the uniforms your employees wear? We found a supplier who had a vision, and operating in this market. Together with our supplier, ‘Dutch Awareness’, we can use materials left over from clothing to building materials. We are trying a new material. It is called ‘Cliff’, and we can use it instead of wood. Our cities face a lot of waste problems with the remaining garments with the cotton garments, so if we collect them, and turn them into building material, that is, we are solving another problem with this material. That’s the idea of burying in the city, right? This is the idea of burying in the city. Use the waste you have, use it again, and also think about how to use them, very close to where you are burying them. We are all in a feverish competition of consumption and production, without thinking at all. We grab, we eat, we drink, we plunder. Of course, we still have to eat, we have to drink, but we need to do it with more awareness. I am the proud father of a daughter, I want the best for her. Better education, better health, the best in everything, to the best and in a good environment. It’s not just about my daughter, it’s about my baby’s children. The circular economy is the best for everyone. Look at yourself, find yourself again, make the right choice about who you are, What you will do and what you will consume. This is the most important. Novamont: Novara, Italy Dr. Weisser visits Novamont, an Italian chemical company, which produces a biodegradable plastic called ‘Mater-B’. renovation The starting point was several different research projects, in different areas, but the first to achieve significant results, was what we define as the ‘Starch Complexity’. Possibility to use it as ordinary plastic. From this first application new products were born and together with these new products was developed also a new treatment of chemistry, and the manner of use of raw materials, which are renewable, and exploitation of biological decomposition. These products are part of the raw materials which can be converted to obtain ‘Mater B’. ‘Mater B’ is a biological plastic, which is realized should be used starch complexity technology. Is a way to intertwine starch with certain materials, to obtain biological decomposition. So the materials used are completely natural, are biologically based materials, while the resulting product is decomposed biologically. It is a material that decomposes completely biologically, and can be transformed into a range of products. These objects can be used for different purposes, and then can be disposed of in an industrial mixing plant. These are often products that we throw away very quickly, Exactly. -In our company of throwing things. You say they will be dismantled, not only them, but the plastic bag will also be dismantled. Exactly. So it’s the perfect support so as not to lead away organic waste at landfills or incinerators. This is interesting because it looks like a diaper to me. Are these also dismantled? -Yes, this is a diaper. It is produced with one of the products ‘Mater B’, it decomposes biologically. How long would it take to move from this to this, then to this? Depends on different objects, but time can vary from a few weeks to a few months. So 30 days, 60 days. -Yes, 30 days, 60 days. Very soon. -Yes, very soon. Various raw materials are mixed, while here the reaction takes place, the transformation, and this is the final product. It looks like a sack that encloses with a drawstring. Yes, we are in Italy. We like spaghetti. So it goes through it, like plastic spaghetti ends it down there. -Then the product is expected, in small pieces, the grains are prepared. Those granules then go to your customers. These grains go to our customers to be later transformed into various objects. films, sheets, or objects being poured through molds. One of Novamont’s innovations is the Lavazza coffee capsule, biodegradable. The Grand Garden is a social cooperative in Milan mixing capsules and crumbs. Following the production process of biological plastics, and those of decomposing plastic. One of these products is Lavaca coffee capsule. You get the final product. far bni m pas me t? We use the coffee grounds again, the new capsule. We use it to grow very good mushrooms. We were told that plastic decomposes biologically. -Yes. It then applies to the soil again, after a mixing process. -Yes. Have you tried it? What is the quality of this mixture? Yes, we noticed that vegetables grow much faster, with this type of soil, than with ordinary soil. They grow 30% more. So we have more small pumpkins, 30% more salad, throwing the coffee grounds to the ground. You have to try it. -Yes. -It’s impressive. This is a relatively new, improved recycling idea. Can you explain to us what you mean by that? We take food waste, coffee grounds, and we use it to produce food again. We use it to grow mushrooms. Very good mushrooms. So coffee goes back to the ground, to produce more food, as it produces food. -So you are creating value from something that would have been waste before dumped at the landfill, and would probably create environmental problems. You have given it new value. -Yes. The example is very good. Not only that, our products can be grown in a circular fashion the same can happen with waste. Another proponent of closing the circle through a renewed treatment, is the energy company Biogen. Biogen converts food waste into energy and fertilizer. We get almost a quarter of a million tons of food waste, everywhere, through blocks of flats, through production plants, and up to the shops, and we turn it here in renewable energy. As its by-product we also produce fertilizer that is thrown back into the fields. So the process is really a closed circuit. This plant receives about 45,000 tons of waste per year, produces about 45,000 hours of electricity, enough to supply about 40,000 homes. Food first arrives here, no matter where it comes from. Whether coming from home, manufacturing plants or restaurants. He will be brought here in big trucks The boys pour it to the ground. E prziejn. The more it is mixed the better it is for the process. How long does it stay here before it gets into the process? At best it does not stay longer than one day on the ground. The fresher it is the more calories it carries, so it can produce more gas. -Good. It’s got to be processed here, behind my back. What is happening here? -The excavator takes it in a bucket, and leads it to the bearers you see behind your back. The mixing will take place there. Then it falls slowly in a large machine that crushes it, in the smallest possible pieces. Then the juice is added, so a slimy mass is created, a liquid that can be pumped out. Well done. Now we looked inside the process of taking food waste crushing and turning into a slimy mass, which then goes out with these autobots. What happens in this process? -In the first part of the process the liquid will be introduced into the raw waste tank. It will be mixed there to make a uniform mass. It is then slowly introduced into two high solvent tanks, where it will be digested over a period of 35-40 days, producing methane gas. Methane is then pumped to the gas carrier, which is that green bubble that appears there. The gas is then mixed and mixed with the engines, that convert it into electricity. Good. This is where green energy is found that you create and forward on the network. But it is assumed that they still have all that waste and that slimy mass. What happens to them? After we have used all the gas from the liquid the latter is then taken to a pasteurizer, where it is cooked at a temperature of 70 degrees Celsius, to kill any pathogen or germ left over from the process. The liquid is then stored in tanks, where it will stay until needed for the areas of the surrounding area, where it is distributed as a biological fertilizer, rich in nitrogen. This product has proven to be quite profitable for farmers During the trials they were able to get more output through solvent manure, which they have used from our process, compared to the chemical fertilizer they have used before. As I look at the process that is happening here today I notice that it applies to many things, fixes many things, solves many problems. Why is it not done on a large scale? Legal support required. We use stimulants to properly finance the plant for a long period of time. One of the real obstacles for this industry is a way to provide more food waste, up to 10 million tons. This is a huge problem in the UK, huge problem in the world. If we look at Scotland and Wales, the authorities of both countries have done a good job, causing that food waste be removed from waste collection sites. If we look at where food waste ends up today we notice that a large amount still goes to landfills, usually through garbage bags taken out of homes. A large amount goes to waste incinerators, which scientifically, logically, is the wrong action. So we need to do more, as there are still millions of tons of waste to be processed. South Africa Redisa What we see here is storage of a host of tires used in this depot. This is a daily process, where each carrier within a radius of 50 Km from now on, he has been given the opportunity to collect tires every day from various vendors. We also have a garbage collector, who do this as individuals, providing a living. So the carrier benefits every day, the waste collector benefits every day, Phumla, how long have you been doing this job, and what does it consist of? How is a typical day for you? I have been doing this for about a year and a half now. I deal with collecting old tires. Every day I go to some places where I know there are usually tires. Then I collect them in a nearby place, where I store them. Then I announce the transport company to pick them up. What makes me dedicate myself to work It is the knowledge that this cause is much greater than reusing tires We have mothers who have never had a bank account. The first time I went out on the field to enroll in the program the first group of waste collectors, when they returned, after the training, we were given bank cards, of a 53-year-old woman was melted in oil. ‘What did I do that made you feel insulted? ‘ I thought. She told me ‘No one has done this for me’. ‘You do not understand’. ‘Previously it was impossible for me to open a bank account’. ‘Because I do not have a residential address. I do not have credit data ‘. So it was completely impossible. But through our union as a mediating instrument, we could talk to the bank, enabling these people to have an account. In our network I have carriers who write to me to tell me they are arriving for the first time to pay for school fees for children, or what a pleasure it is to have your own home, to have it. So waste is worth a lot more rather than simply as a commodity, or commodity processing. We are talking about self-worth, we are talking about growth, we are talking about human development. I think based on our positive mindset we know that by boosting the circular economy we will be able to change lives. How do you see the benefits of being involved in such a business? Three years ago, when I started working with this company, I was not working, I did not have a car. The only thing I had it was a small bicycle, with a trailer behind it. I managed to register them and I was assigned a carrier. So far, 3 years have passed, I managed to get 4 vans, I am offering a job, I am providing bread for about 6 families. This company helped me, including my children, who now attend a better school. I could also pay off all the debts. So there are a number of social benefits, as well as an economic boost. -Can you give us an example, to someone you know whose life has changed through involvement in this company? I am the example. -Yes, tell us your story. My life has changed completely.U smura rnd, and I could not find a job because of my age. Life is too hard if it does not work, especially if you are not a thief and do not know what to do. To be given such an opportunity. This has changed me forever. I am a better person. My family enjoys the opportunities I give them. Benefit from this. We manage to eat. Also, as Africans … it is not just your family that benefits. It’s not just my family. Other families, related to mine, also benefit. I currently employ 14 people. I started it with about 6 people, who also support the families. So my life has changed, I see happy people, and also myself happy and in good health. If all other industries could see this, processing of other waste, in this style, I think we would make a lot of progress, towards creating a healthy South Africa. We are also enabling many businesses to flourish, job creation. Remember, when we talk about waste collectors we are talking about a family where probably no one works. Now they suddenly have the opportunity to collect tires, and the latter provide them with bread of the mouth. This makes me move forward. The fact that at least people are being hired, po bjn dika. Waste has a certain value if people pay attention to them. When I grew up, it was 1976, when we burned these tires, but today I am opening jobs with these tires. So I’m very proud to say that my end will be better, I have the opportunity to live in South Africa where we are today. Unlike a straight-line economy, where we produce and dispose of products, in this case, in South Africa, we are taking the product, we are not throwing it away, but we are using it in another industry, which aims to profit and turn them into goods these tires, in addition to economic growth, to enable job creation and small business development. This is the process of reducing truck tires. -Good. Basically what we do is get the truck tire weighing from 1.5 tons to about 6 tons. The rate of operation … I think we can process up to 120 tons per day. -OK. It is then used to produce other products, for other uses. -Yes. It becomes raw material for other processes. These processes can be used as fuel for Cement kilns. They can be taken further, becoming what we call ‘Crumbs’, material used in the manufacture of rubber products, or for paving roads. Then we have a process called ‘Pyrolysis’, which enables the extraction of oil, fuel, from these tires. Who is the person who got you started in this business? You can do many other things. Is there a self-motivation? -Related to the place where we grew up. Tires were always an undisputed problem. Breeding became a breeding ground for all kinds of diseases. Although we do not have malaria in this part of the country, mosquitoes and other insects still carry diseases. When we were children we used to remove very badly in the summer, after the rain. We could not play outside, from the multitude of mosquitoes that were bred on these tires. Even in winter, if you go to most cities, you will see that there is smoke. Coal is also a source, but a large part also came from the tires. Tires, unlike coal, release a lot of poison when burned. So we are not only taking care of the environment, but we are also taking care of our health and the well-being of the surrounding communities. These are the reasons that motivate me, that excite me in this business. Because I’m really excited. What can these rubber particles be made of? Can be used by different industries. I think their most widespread use It is as a filler on sports surfaces, like football fields. In fact we are looking for ways to enable use in industry. We are targeting for example the paint industry, which is used for non-slip paints. We produce acoustic substrates and acoustic products used worldwide, by one of our factories. We currently export these products to 45 countries. We have also created a market for paving slabs slippery road connecting elements. But they play a big role in the whole value chain. When you talk about the products that come out of here I get the impression that these products did not exist. You had to find ways to create new products. I am interested in the role of renovation and in this whole circular economy That’s right. I think South Africa is in the first steps as far as rubber particles are concerned. It does not look like many developed markets, as in the United Kingdom, in the United States, where this process is at a more developed stage. So our role as a processor, or recycler, is to help, in terms of renovation, lets try to cooperate with other industries, to create innovative products from the products we create here, and also to collaborate with research institutes, in an effort to drive more, produce more innovation. Our experience shows that especially those countries that are less developed, precisely those countries that do not have existing industries, countries with the largest workforce, are in a favorable position to deal with their waste, in this way. Creating a cleaner environment in developed countries enables radical change in the future of people in the world. It has been proven that when children grow up, since adults mature in a cleaner, better environment, they have become more productive, they have created better places. Dr. Weisser visits Quito in Ecuador, one of these ‘best places’ to see how they are using all aspects of closing the circle. We are among the mountains, but the land that is part of the main neighborhood of Kito has very different heights. So we have a lot of ecosystems, some very fragile, so we are very committed to protecting them, making sure that generations will enjoy them as much as we do, the beauties of our city, and the surrounding areas. 90% of our territory is mountainous and has significant biodiversity. Therefore, we anticipate that in the future to declare certain areas protected, where we now have natural resources. It is clear that mobility is the main problem in the city. Problems with public transport, traffic jams. So we are addressing these issues with a consistent vision. We start the construction of the first metro line in the city. It is the largest infrastructure project sometimes applied in Kito. We are also building a cable car system, to reach the city areas located on top of the mountain. This project not only protects the environment, but is also an initiative which helps in the regeneration of areas who have been poor for decades. Kito is widely known, thanks to efforts to preserve water lines, to ensure the long-term supply of Quito with water, with higher quality, and in larger quantities. So we devised this special water fund, which is very popular, was the first fund in Latin America. Now all the other cities are doing the same thing, to preserve these water lines. -We are also following imagining a city that holds its own, through a system for proper waste management. From dumping waste here at the collection point we obtain two products. The first is biological gas, methane, which is converted into energy. The other is the water that drains from the processed waste. This liquid has a high level of pollution. We specialize in treating this polluted water implementing environmental protection regulations, before discharging it into a host body. Implementing environmental protection regulations, before discharging it into the water, by purifying the fluid obtained from the decomposition of the waste We have provided more than 40% of the city with waste bins. We are also working to introduce a recycling culture in the city, waste separation from the outset. We are also working to protect natural resources, prohibiting some activities that are harmful to the environment, such as mining, an activity exercised by several sectors of the country, but we have already stopped them, through an ordinance. Here are some examples reflecting our great commitment to make our city not only sustainable, but also an example for the region. It is essential to be sensitive, to be spiritually given to the things we do. Sustainability is the inner voice. Is a particle you can add, to see that natural resources can be preserved for future generations, for our children, for our city, for our planet. Quito is rich in bio-diversity as a city to companies and citizens are trying to conserve resources. Ecuador is among the countries with the largest biodiversity in the world. We try to preserve this. We insert our sand particles in this process, to give our help. Everything has to do with waste recycling. Yes. -Especially of airtight packaging. I know some of this material, I find it difficult to recycle, as there is a layer of cardboard, a layer of foil, a layer of plastic. How do you solve this? The thing is … We have two main products. One that is produced from three types of materials, while the other obtained from the extraction of cardboard, through a process called ‘Water Softening’. We use cardboard to recycle paper, holding foil and plastic to produce the products you see here. Okay, give me some ideas. What products can you create with this material? The variety of processing of this material leaves you speechless. We produce roof coverings, whose lifespan is 30 years, we produce chairs, we produce furniture for outdoor environments, hand-knitted in Ecuador and sent to shore, as they are probably the most skilled artisans in Ecuador. We produce jewelry, we produce counters, and now we are producing kitchens and bathrooms with this material. So we are turning the waste into something impressive. Something you can have at home without even knowing how it was made. How do you see the future of such a business? It’s an excellent business. In fact, we are trying to expand at the international level. Because the biggest impact it has is transportation. We do not want to bring the material from Mexico, or Panama, but we want to process it here. Thus the impact on the environment would be smaller. You see this material as a source, as an impetus for your process. I also know that in other countries it is paid to eliminate it. Yes, they do pay a premium for this. So not only are you solving the problem, but you are also creating a product. So it’s a business opportunity. Yes. -Everyone wins. Yes, we can produce more or less any product using wood, cement or non-renewable materials, doing even better. The quality of our products is the best than those currently on the market. So it’s an excellent business. Dr. Weisser travels to the General Motors assembly plant. One of the company’s 152 zero waste plants to see how they are contributing to a circular Quito. We produce about 20,000 cars a year. Our production is one of the most important in Ecuador, as the company owns about 48% of the market in the country. Let’s take a look at these crates. -Of course. Explain to me a little, where is their uniqueness? The peculiarity of these boxes is that they are reversible. I mean we can break them down, then they go back to Japan. That’s how people buy new parts, they go to Ecuador again. This process is performed 10 times, before the box is no longer valid. OK. When you say ‘Boxes’ you are talking about a metal frame. It is much stronger. It does not break like wood, or other wrappers. Extremely sleek solution. -Yes, very simple as an idea. But the results are very good for us, as we avoid buying other metal boxes. What achievements have you noted here, in terms of the environment? Our calculations show that at these moments 99% of company waste is reused or recycled. It means that all the material contains a solution, or has a partner who does everything with this material. The chassis of the car sinks into the water rich in chemicals. What happens to that water and those chemicals? The water passes into the treatment plant deposit, so it is taken again. Remove all chemicals, all hazardous materials, and the water returns again. Water makes a closed circuit. -Impressive. So you have two closed circuits. Water moves through your system, while the sludge chemical residue resulting from this process, goes to Hol-im company that produces cement where it is used as fuel for their processes. -Yes. All the water comes here, we try to mix it, adjust the pH of the waste water, then we apply the biological treatment process, which aims to remove all organic ingredients from water. So go in here, I guess through the tubes, and processing tanks here, then it turns out that from here. -Yes. This is the sewer where it used to be discharged. Exactly. We usually downloaded about 5000 to 6000 meters / cubic meter of water used per month. OK. -Exactly here. Now you do not download anything? -Yes. We got a chance for us, as we were discharging high quality water in our drainage system. So we decided to start a project, to apply further filtering, of an osmotic system on the opposite side, which will enable us to obtain drinking water. Water will be used by our largest customer of the plant, paint workshop. So behind our backs is the processing process, which you designed. -Yes. All right, great. As an environmental engineer. In what quality do you bring it? Is it drinkable like water? -Yes. This water is drinkable. -Really? -Yes. So can I drink a glass of water without losing my life? No, you would not lose your life. -Maybe we should do it now. I got a glass. -This is the quality of our water. OK. This water comes out of the plant where we were. -Yes, With all chemicals, paints and treatments, and now it must be drinkable. -Yes, it is clean water. G .zuar. Well done. -Happy. It looks like a sack that encloses with a drawstring. -Exactly. – Totally clean. Totally clean. You can follow the industrial process while taking care of the environment, do something to solve some problems. The project was not approved due to financial benefits This project was approved as there are many social and environmental benefits. Dr. Weisser visits a farm in the misty forest of the province of Pikinka in Ecuador. This region has a lot of humidity. Even though it rains a lot, it is wet, soil irrigation remains extremely difficult again. So the only way to get water, or to bring water to the area is to have trees. I came to work here about a year and a half ago. We want to use less space, reducing the pressure on the forest that exists here. Usually people expand their pastures by cutting down trees. We do the opposite. We reduce pasture and increase our efforts. Consequently we have preserved the forest, we have planted new trees. we brought back the birds that were no longer encountered here. Usually, as a tradition, there is an animal for 3 hectares, We are keeping 3-4 animals per hectare. It is often difficult to get people to believe to different systems, as they have never seen them. What they can do is compare them and see that it is not difficult to follow as a system. It just takes a little more work, and the results will be great. Is there a way to reuse your resources? Another way to do this is to collect rainwater which is obtained through ative.Through a system of pipes, that carry water to our reservoirs. We can use it as water, we can give it to animals, we can wash the tools and do many other things. We can also use cow dung. The goal is to have organic fertilizer constantly, without the use of chemicals or pesticides. What is your motivation? What inspires you to take care of the environment, while also caring for cows? – I’m a child. Other generations will follow us. They deserve a clean planet. A planet that offers good living conditions. Junguija in South Quensia Dr. Weiser’s last stop in Ecuador It is in the Bosnian Nublado Commune. Here we are in Junguija. A mountain community that has existed for 20 years. We cooperate with other organizations to implement sustainable practices. For about 20 years the main activity of this community has been the extraction of natural reserves. So … after 20 years … people have realized the importance of finding other forms of action. How has this area been before? This area was completely deserted 20 years ago. This whole area, 3000 hectares, was used only as pastures. The only activity that was practiced was the breeding of cattle. There were large farms producing milk and meat. All we had were cattle pastures. Now, 20 years later, we have managed to change the mindset of the people. We have renovated the destroyed areas, of people have changed their economic activities. Mass cattle breeding no longer continues. On the contrary, we have other productive activities. as the growth of area fruits, fruit trees. This whole process has helped to preserve the area. We are more aware that there is still a lot to do, in terms of land renewal, that still needs a lot of work. Behind the mountains we have large forests, which are part of the community. They cover approximately 13,000 hectares. While from this part they extend to 8,000 hectares. Our work does not focus only here on the farm yes in total 13,000 hectares. There are many motivations that involve me in this project. My father told me that I built the house only with the trees of the trees I had planted in my youth. These are the motivations that make our community work. We are convinced that natural resources can be better managed, in a more sustainable way. Seeing that you want to protect it for future generations, you really believe in this, it’s wonderful. Our main objective is for the community to live well. To live in harmony with the natural resources that surround us. Most importantly, that our children can live in a clean and healthy place. So if Kuito managed to keep … why can’t we close the whole circle? We need to involve people in this process, should make them want to be part of this equation, to ensure their participation. Part of our problem is the transition to the circular system is that most people do not even realize its importance, nor do they know exactly how this is done. They are not engineers. It is often much easier to see the intricacies rather than looking at long-term benefits. This is why I think political leadership and government support, funding for appropriate activities It is essential. I think businesses need to lead. During the period of work in NGOs or in business I have not seen the leadership the world needs from governments. I am of the opinion that governments in some countries and in some cases are shorter than businesses. Governments that are in a short election cycle, of 4 or 5 years, they find it very difficult make long-term decisions. So what we find is sustainability for long-term investments, while the pressure is short-term. Especially in a democracy it is often difficult to ask the public to make short-term sacrifices for long-term benefits. I think we like to collect things. It is in human nature. This is how we are cooked. We relate things to our sense of self, with our values if you will, and our status in society. So abruptly give up on things, their use instead of owning them, it will be quite difficult to take as a step on our part. Get this message right it will be very important for moving forward. The circular economy community has not yet resolved this point. I do not think they have dealt with the public engagement that is needed. We expect continued growth even in our countries, in our economies. If we are not growing we are in crisis. We expect our businesses to be growing. So we have some expectations that actually conflict with the limited planet on which we live. On the one hand people have always been on the border, have always been expanding, occupying territories, and has generally been part of increasing consumption. Increased land use, energies. This has been the story of human development. On the other hand, we have only recently become so rich so much so that we did not have to think for reuse, or for recycling. A while ago the milk seller brought us the bottles to use again, or we repaired socks when they were punctured. This was common. This was because it cost a lot to do something else. I think one of the changes that is happening it was the loss from our eyes of what made us happy Our basic human needs have not changed, but the way they meet these needs has changed. In a way, we can really joke, we invent advertising, we invent consumption, to say you can not be happy if you do not have more things. While for thousands of years we were happy without things. This is one of the elements of waste of the ‘Do-It-Take’ society we bring to life. We must question this. We need to teach children that it is not good just to love more. This will not necessarily make them happier. Human psychology carries an element where we want to feel we are growing. We need to think about the meaning of growth. Does growth always mean ‘more’? Or does it mean ‘Development’? Or does it mean that we are increasing the satisfaction, that we are progressing, that we are learning as a society, as a city, as a family, I think linear economics is the dominant model simply because the world is not in tune, or aware of the circular pattern, and its economic and social benefits. So it seems to us that part of the challenge It is a fact that stakeholders for the circular economy still working separately from each other. They are not a single community, a single body. And our goal in creating this program to accelerate the circular economy aims to bring these stakeholders to a place, to be able to form partnerships, that will help and accelerate this process. Of course this includes technology and innovation, including policy makers, that can create the regulatory framework, to enable the flourishing of circular economy models. And that certainly involves investors. What needs to be done is that companies need to make their products more accessible, therefore they must grow. These ideas need to grow, and become commercially viable, in a way that is also affordable They will carry a premium. If you want circular solutions to take off they need to be made more accessible. We can enter, maybe after 10 years, in a circular economy conceived only for elites. What happens then, in terms of achieving it? If ordinary people can not afford these products then they will not benefit from them. This is the main problem. If we elaborate a lot on the circular economy we will never implement it. Certainly not hundreds, if not thousands of companies. Take ‘Mark & Spencer’ for example. We sell 35,000 different products. This is a big challenge to think about in a circular format. But if I look at it from a different perspective I say 28,000 of these items are clothing, how could we arrange the outfits in a completely different way? How to make sure buyers get the right product, which lasts as long as possible, but when you are done with it is there an easy way to get it back to ‘Mark & Spencer’? This is what we did with the exchange campaign, with Oxfam. Return the used item to us or OxFam, we give it to them, they use it again, they sell it again. 99.99% of the fibers they take back used again to create value for the development of OxFam in their overseas development process. This is fantastic. It has been done on a large scale, with a lot of authority. Now back to the 3-4 million articles a year. This is not 100% of what we sell, it is 1%, so we are challenging ourselves again for how we can reach that level. But it remains an important figure, 3-4 million items a year. So the challenge here is simplification, facilitate things as much as possible. The second challenge we have is trying to do business to cooperate in this particular competition. We will not create a sustainable economy simply because ‘Mark & Spenser’ will do it himself. We need to show as many participants as possible of the economy in the United Kingdom and the world is doing this in part, partly because someone’s raw material It’s someone else’s remnant, It’s someone else’s opportunity for reservations as well. So the more people participate the more material is used. The more we can increase them synergies and large-scale collection efficiencies, returning them too. So just by doing these two things, simplification and expansion, through various businesses, we will create the real circular economy. I think it all has to do with costs. A host of local authorities are doing the right thing. I think what we need is government support to try to take this further. Remember that we are not just house owners. We have retail organizations, we have trade organizations. How do we support these guys? How do we make them think more about food waste? Many things are happening. Do not misunderstand me. People are really focused on that, but I think we can make another attempt, to take another portion of food waste, from the waste stream through such plants. The problem is that in the circular economy you can not design a circular product or special service, The whole system has to change with it. This circular product will not reap much success if it relies on a straight-line economic system. We can now use 30 years of climate change as a real engine of renewal. We can process all our products to be good, from biological or technical systems, we need the help of people. Because if they sit down and calm down we will be too slow. I say ‘Let us enjoy life’. ‘Let us welcome the people of this planet’. Then we can be 20 million people on these planet, and be good for other species as well. So everything depends on us. We already have the common experience. It is time to act. BENEFITS As soon as you close your eyes, the income increases, costs decrease, risks decrease, tangible values increase. In a word the brand can be made known, while we also have the positive impact to society and the environment. So I think it’s a clean solution, for a triple bottom line. If you are considering starting a business today, to design a business based on the philosophy of circular economy, as a result you will have a higher income in a longer period of time. Because it will use your resources more efficiently. It will use energy more efficiently, will treat customers in a way that, I believe, that they will want to be treated after 5 or 10 years. So I think in commercial terms It’s a found way to progress. Why would you throw something like that? Something of value? Why would you do that? I think maybe the West is the one left behind. We are in an economy where things are thrown away. Meanwhile, in places where there are fewer things I think they are seeing that they are using them in the most efficient way. It has been several years since we undertook our journey towards sustainability, in many of our other companies. We understand that sustainability and the environment offer us opportunities. We do not see them as a threat environmental legislatures, or environmental mandates, but we see them as opportunities from a cost perspective, from the point of view of the brand, from the development of the products using a large amount of recyclable materials. So basically it has created the platform for our renewal. There are many clients who value sustainability, doing something good for the environment, therefore choose Interfaces, for this reason. But there are still many customers, consider second-hand durability. They choose us first for the primary function they expect from our product. Design mode, low cost, functionality. It is fantastic that many of these features have their origins in the development of sustainability. In this respect I am very optimistic, as it is seen that this is being understood by more and more companies. I also think it is very clear that companies with a clear vision of sustainability are often the most successful companies. This is a source of inspiration in itself. Check out some Interfaces, we’re off group, we lead in the market industry, we are very good financially, we are a source of inspiration for industry in general, and of course for the carpet industry. If you use material that would otherwise be waste, if you are significantly reducing the level of pollution, and you are using waste material for basic building blocks, then you will be able to reduce costs, and also upgrade the product, from the same stock. Last year we gave a check to our CFO. 180 million pounds were saved. Less energy, less waste, less packaging, less bags. They all save money for the business. Fantastic. It can open new stores, help us grow further. It also brought us more than that. We are one of the most trusted brands in the UK, we have high levels of employee trust, which makes them go further, bringing about many changes in the retail market. It is creating more resilience in our supply networks, that are being influenced more and more from social challenges, and extreme weather developments. So ‘Mark & Spencer’ is back in the game for drafting master plans for the last decade. But that’s not enough, so we need to redouble our efforts in the future. So are business matters will be much bigger in the future, if we properly present this model to our customers. Renault is capable of producing from 30% to 50% cheaper for customers, as they have been able to perfect this process. They have also decreased by about 80% their production costs. Consumption of energy, water, and so on, it has decreased significantly as well. So if we take it as a case study ‘Renault’ shows indisputably that the circular economy not only do we do well, but it is also very financially strong, to produce competitive advantage. In this case, thanks to cost reduction and withdrawal by the same process, for the same products on the market. Of course, if you talk to similar at the World Economic Forum, if you talk to the Ellen McArthur Foundation, if you talk to McKinsey they will say ‘Yes’, without a doubt. They have done a lot of detailed modeling work, that create great opportunities for companies working towards a circular economy. Recently I think a report came out from Aksentur, a consulting company visibly included in this work program, where it was said that companies moving towards the circular business model until 2030, will have $ 4.3 billion in profits. This is something perfect for manufacturers, as I believe it helps with supply chain, in terms of protection of raw materials, that go forward. Now companies are facing with price volatility in supply chains, about how they provide certain materials they need for their products and services. If they manage to get these materials back, repeatedly, using them many times, through their supply networks, this creates, proves in the future, if we were to say so, moving forward with their business model. Gives them security for supply. Implementation of a new model, an economic model, probably requires renewed handling of things. It can be product renewal, it can be process renewal. So basically a big, positive impact, of a model like the circular economy, would be innovation. It can be devastating renovation, certainly in a positive way. We can never underestimate the power of social influence, achieved through circular economy. I think the world is facing a host of challenges. I think we have the challenge of environmental impacts, but we also have the challenge of dividing the rich into the poor. You can tackle this problem through circular economics because in it there is room for everyone. As I travel I see many wonderful places in the world, great people, great places, impressive nature in abundance, even in the jungles of Ecuador, in Costa Rica, or on the beaches of Sri Lanka, many of them are at risk. They are threatened. It is likely that one or two generations later they can no longer see them. This saddens me immensely. We are smarter than that, we are smarter than that. We created the problem, we can solve it. We just need to be more aware, for the way we live, for our influence. I think we are getting smarter. This is one of the things that is connected to the world today, with our world of high technology, we are becoming many times more adept at this. A common awareness is emerging. The idea of a living planet is coming to life. We have to choose if we want to coexist with the planet, or if we want to live in harmony with the planet, or if we want to live like parasites on the planets. We know what happens to parasites. The bearer dies, so do they. The only way for this to work Is if the stability of circular thinking, closing the loop, applies to all. It is not about any luxury, about having the rich and the privileged. It should be a solution for low-income people, people in developing countries and above. This should be an opportunity where they can choose how they consume, how they produce, This gives them direct benefits. It is not impossible, as a good part of circular thinking, coincides with the time when resources were scarce. Whether during World War II or the Great Depression. Then we had to think about saving. to say ‘How can we use things again? ‘How can we recycle things? ‘ So no matter where you are in society, no matter who you are, you can make these choices. You can educate children not to throw things away, not to leave the lights on. To think if they really need something, to think about where it goes when you throw it away. These are things we can all do. It is not the privilege of the minority, but the responsibility of all. To see a world emerging around us, where piles of debris rise higher than skyscrapers, where rivers are drying up, where forests are burning, these things make me sad. I do not want to be melodramatic, but if you look at the numbers, if you look at the trends, things do not look good at all. I want to focus on what is possible. Having seen that change can happen very quickly, and that the world of afflictions, the world of our nightmares, it is not inevitable. We have to think about the revolution towards which we are going, as a way through which we can leave our mark on the Earth. A positive trace. It is up to us to be part of the solution, and in fact we are all looking for a meaning in life. Where’s more meaningful than making life flourish, instead of destroying it? We can get involved in the mission, we can turn it into our own mission being part of the solution. What do you want to say to your grandchildren at the end of the day? That you were part of the problem, or that you were part of the solution? You want to be part of the decline of civilization, or do you want to be on the side of hope, renewal, re-creation, that kind of life and that kind of earth we were created to enjoy? The choice as always is yours..

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